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name and describe two kinds of realities
Agreement reality - accepting reality of things you don't personally experience.
Experiential reality - direct observation
what are the foundations of social science
- logic- make sense
- observation - correspond with what we observe
what is an aggregate
collective actions and situations of many individuals
what is an attribute
values or chracteristics or qualities that describe an object.
what is a variable?
logical sets of attributes.
what is the relationships between independent and dependent variables?
independent is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable.
what is an independent variable
values that are not problematical in an anlysis but are taken as simply given.
what is a dependent variable
depends on or is caused by another variable.
discuss inacurate observations and how to safegaurd against them
mistakes in observation
- make the observation more deliberate
- simple and complex measuring devices
discuss overgeneralizations and how to safegaurd against them
assuming that a few similar evenst are evidence of a general pattern - overgeneralize based on limited observation
- seeking a sufficiently large sample
- replication of inquiry
what is replication
repeating an experiment to expose or reduce error
discuss selectiveobservations and how to safegaurd against them
after realizing that a pattern exists and developing a general understanding of why, you tend to focus on future events and situations that fit the pattern, ignore those that don't.
specify in advance the number and kind of observations to be made
make special effor to find deviant cases
discuss illogical reasoning and how to safegaurd against it
handling observations in a way that contradicts the way things are in real life - the exception that proves the rule
use systems of logic s consciously and explicitly
What would you like to do?
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