Pathophysiology Unit 2

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uebbingm
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6574
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Pathophysiology Unit 2
Updated:
2010-02-15 19:31:17
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patho pathophysiology
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Integrative Body Functions
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  1. Fluids and electrolytes are in these 3 things
    • Body cells
    • Tissue spaces between cells
    • Blood
  2. Fluids and electrolytes function to
    • 1. transport gases, nutrients and wastes
    • 2. help generate electrical activity
    • 3. help transform food to energy
    • 4. maintain overall body activity
  3. Body fluids are broken up into
    ICF and ECF
  4. Substances that can dissociate in solution to form charged particles; Cations and Anions
    Electrolytes
  5. ECF is divided into 3 different compartments
    • 1. Plasma
    • 2. interstitial
    • 3. transcellular
  6. When transcellular compartment enlarges this is called ___ and occurs in the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities
    third spacing
  7. the transfer of water between vascular and interstitial compartments occurs at this level and is controlled by these 4 forces and through these channels
    • Capillary
    • 1. Capillary filtration
    • 2. Capillary Colloidal Osmotic pressure
    • 3. interstitial hydrostatic pressure
    • 4. Tissue colloidal osmotic pressure
    • Lymph
  8. Palpable swelling produced by expansion of the interstitial fluid volume
    edema
  9. Changes in ______result in changes in water volume
    sodium
  10. Who has a higher total body water?
    A. Men
    B. Infants
    C. Obese
    D. Women
    B. Infants, followed by men, women and obese
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. You gain water mostly through
    A. oral intake
    B. metabolic processes
    Oral Intake
  12. Water is lost primarily through _____
    the kidneys
  13. minimum urine output to eliminate metabolic waste is approx. __________
    300-500 ml/day
  14. The kidneys promote_______when overloaded and _________water when ECF volume is decreased.
    diuresis and conserve
  15. Water is reabsorbed by the _____and ______, but 150-200 ml is eliminated in the _____.
    ileum and colon; feces
  16. These can disrupt absorption by removing large amounts of water from GI tract
    diarrhea, drainage tubes, fistulas, GI suction
  17. Loss of skin integrity increases _______losses, called insensible losses.
    evaporative
  18. Most abundant cation in the body, helps regulate the acid-base balance, aids in nervous system and regulates ECF volume
    Sodium
  19. This organ largely regulates Na + output.
    Kidney
  20. _______ regulates water intakes, while _____regulates water intake.
    Thirst, and Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
  21. This is activated through
    1. Cellular dehydration
    2. Decreased blood volume
    3. Angiotensin II increased due to low BP and blood volume
    Thirst
  22. Decrease in the ability to sense thirst, caused by cerebral lesion in hypothalmus
    hypodipsia
  23. ________or excessive thirst can be caused by true thirst due to ______, vomiting, or diabetes or false thirst due to _____and CHF also compulsive in schizophrenics
    Polydipsia, diarrhea, and renal failure.
  24. reabsorption of water by kidneys is regulated by ____
    ADH or vasopressin
  25. a defect in synthesis of this hormone caused by head injury or a defect in kidney response can lead to diabetes insipidus, and a loss of water
    Antidiuretic Hormone
  26. WIth an inappropriate secretion of ADH, urine output, Na+, BUN, Hct, and serum osmolarity all ________
    decrease, because too much water is being retained.
  27. this results when there are proportional losses of sodium and water. there is a fluid volume deficit, yet lab values look normal>>dehydration occurs
    hypovolemia
  28. Kidney is the major route for this electrolytes elimination, it is filtered in the glomerulous, the hormone aldosterone is important in its regulation
    K+
  29. _______is critical for acid-base balance, concentrating urine, growth, muscle contraction
    K+
  30. 99% stored in bone
    Calcium
  31. _____is absorbed in intestines with help of vitamin D, stored in bone, and excreted by kidneys. Sources are milk and milk products
    Calcium
  32. regulates blood levels of calcium and phosphate
    Parathyroid hormone
  33. _______get from diet, absorbed in intestines, excreted by kidneys. In green veg. grains, nuts meats, seafood, groundwater.
    magnesium
  34. H2CO3 leaves the body through the______
    lungs
  35. _____ is excreted by kidneys and buffered
    HCO3-
  36. lactic acid is the result of incomplete oxidation of ______
    ketoacid is the result of incomplete oxidation of _____
    glucose, fats
  37. these are immediately available to combine with excess acids or bases while awaiting respiratory and renal mechanisms
    Buffers
  38. three kinds of buffers
    • 1.) Proteins-albumin and plasma globulins
    • 2.) Bicarbonate
    • 3.) Plasma K+/H+ exchange
  39. Arterial Blood Gas Level
    pH
    7.35-7.45
  40. Arterial Blood Gas Level
    PaCO2
    35-45 mmHg
  41. Arterial Blood Gas Level
    HCO-3
    22-26 mEq/L
  42. Arterial Blood Gas Level
    PaO2
    80-100 mmHg
  43. Arterial Blood Gas Level
    O2 saturation
    95%-100%
  44. Base excess/deficit
    -3 to +3 mEq/L
  45. Anion gap
    8-12 mEq/L
  46. HCO3-
    20-29 mEq/L
  47. the amount of acid or base needed to achieve a pH of 7.4
    base excess/deficit
  48. the difference between plasma concentration of Na+ and Cl- and HCO3-
    anion gap
  49. acidosis
    pH less than 7.35
  50. alkalosis
    pH greater than 7.45
  51. a low pH caused by a decrease in HCO3-
    metabolic acidosis
  52. increased pH caused by increased HCO3-
    metabolic alkalosis
  53. a___in pH caused by decreased ventilation and a ___in PCO2 causes
    respiratory acidosis
  54. an ___pH caused by increased ventilation and ___PCO2 results in
    respiratory alkalosis

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