Pathology

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Author:
jasminechabolla
ID:
65765
Filename:
Pathology
Updated:
2011-02-11 21:09:17
Tags:
pta125
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Description:
Systems Review
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  1. Three Methods of Protection.
    • 1. Normal Body structures
    • ex: Tears, hair, skin, mucus membranesI
    • 2. Inflammatory Response
    • ex: vasodilation: brings in leukocytes, phagocyte, macrofage. increase capillary permeability.
    • 3. specific immune response.
    • ex: first line of defense.
  2. 2 Types of Acquired Immunity
    • 1. Humoral: bacterial inf. will trigger humeral response.
    • -specialized WBC's called B-cell lymphocytes produce anti bodies.
    • 2. Cell-Mediated- Specialized WBC's called T-cell lymphocytes.
    • -Type of protection: against fungus, virus, paracytes, tumors. -slow response.
  3. Immunodeficient disease: definition
    • When an immune response is absent of deficient
    • -Primary: born with it,
    • congenital defect involving T and Bcells
    • -Secondary: underlying disease or event
    • Leukemia, alcoholism
  4. Immunodeficient diseases
    Iatrogenic Immunodeficiency
    • -Drug induced
    • ex: chemo, radiation, corticosteroids (lungs), transplant medicine (cycosclerene)
  5. Immunodeficient diseases
    A.I.D.S
    • -HIV retrovirus infection
    • -destruction of T-Cells
    • -PCP: pneumocystic carmipheumonia
    • -kaposi's sarcoma: skin cancer
  6. immunodeficient diseases
    A.I.D.S
    • Asymptomatic stage: no symptoms really. mono type symptoms.
    • Early Symptomatic stage: generalized lymph swelling. weight loss. more fatigue. night sweats. fevers.
    • Advanced disease: mono type. skin disorders, swelling in brain. ataxic gait. dimentia.
  7. Immunodeficient Diseases
    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    • aka: epstenebar virus or yuppy flu
    • Etiology: etiopathic
    • clinical manifistation: fatigue more than six months. sore throat, tender lymph nodes. forgetful. overwhelming with activity. low BP, low HR
    • PT intervention: energy conservation
  8. Immunodeficient Diseases
    Hypersensitivity disorders
    • Exaggerated or inappropriate immune response: allergic response
    • -hay fever, hives, rheumatoid arthrities
  9. Autoimmune Disorders
    • Body does not distinguish itself from invaders
    • -butterfly rash on cheeks
    • : systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE)
    • : fibromyalgia
  10. Autoimmune disorders
    LuPus
    • Chronic imflammatory autoimmune disorder
    • -affects multiple systems
    • -idiopathic
    • -1.5 million in US
    • PT intervention: gentle strengthening avoid stretching during exacerbation.
  11. Autoimmune distorders
    Fybromyalgia
    • 90%of women
    • -has bypassed rheumatoid arthritis
    • etiology: idopathic
    • SS: fatigue, jt. pain, muscle weakness, visual disturbances.
    • to dx: 11/18 tender points. ruled out everything else. morning stiffness. sleep disturbances.
  12. Skin Disorders
    Dermatitis
    • Atopic: allergic reaction.
    • itchy, dry cracking- often assoc. with personal or family hx allergy. ex: excema
    • Contact: chemicals, biologic agent- poison ivy
    • Stasis: assoc. with venous insufficiency. ex: bad circulation. edema.
  13. Skin Disorders
    Bacterial infections
    • Impetigo-staph or strep (children)
    • Cellulitis: tissue inflammation- staph or strep, often in lower extremities (adults)
  14. Skin Disorders
    Viral Infections
    • Herpes Zoster (shingles)
    • -vericella virus
    • - Chicken pox
    • Warts
    • -virus
    • -hands, fingers, feet
    • - can freeze or burn
  15. Skin Disorders
    Fungal Infections
    • Ringworm (tinea corporis)
    • Athlete's foot (tinea pedis)
  16. Skin Disorders
    Parasitic Infestations
    • Scabies- mites
    • Pediculosis- LIce

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