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Three Methods of Protection.
- 1. Normal Body structures
- ex: Tears, hair, skin, mucus membranesI
- 2. Inflammatory Response
- ex: vasodilation: brings in leukocytes, phagocyte, macrofage. increase capillary permeability. 3. specific immune response.
- ex: first line of defense.
2 Types of Acquired Immunity
- 1. Humoral: bacterial inf. will trigger humeral response.
- -specialized WBC's called B-cell lymphocytes produce anti bodies.
- 2. Cell-Mediated- Specialized WBC's called T-cell lymphocytes.
- -Type of protection: against fungus, virus, paracytes, tumors. -slow response.
Immunodeficient disease: definition
- When an immune response is absent of deficient
- -Primary: born with it,
- congenital defect involving T and Bcells
- -Secondary: underlying disease or event
- Leukemia, alcoholism
- -Drug induced
- ex: chemo, radiation, corticosteroids (lungs), transplant medicine (cycosclerene)
- -HIV retrovirus infection
- -destruction of T-Cells
- -PCP: pneumocystic carmipheumonia
- -kaposi's sarcoma: skin cancer
- Asymptomatic stage: no symptoms really. mono type symptoms.
- Early Symptomatic stage: generalized lymph swelling. weight loss. more fatigue. night sweats. fevers.
- Advanced disease: mono type. skin disorders, swelling in brain. ataxic gait. dimentia.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- aka: epstenebar virus or yuppy flu
- Etiology: etiopathic
- clinical manifistation: fatigue more than six months. sore throat, tender lymph nodes. forgetful. overwhelming with activity. low BP, low HR
- PT intervention: energy conservation
- Exaggerated or inappropriate immune response: allergic response
- -hay fever, hives, rheumatoid arthrities
- Body does not distinguish itself from invaders
- -butterfly rash on cheeks
- : systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE)
- : fibromyalgia
- Chronic imflammatory autoimmune disorder
- -affects multiple systems
- -1.5 million in US
- PT intervention: gentle strengthening avoid stretching during exacerbation.
- 90%of women
- -has bypassed rheumatoid arthritis
- etiology: idopathic
- SS: fatigue, jt. pain, muscle weakness, visual disturbances.
- to dx: 11/18 tender points. ruled out everything else. morning stiffness. sleep disturbances.
- Atopic: allergic reaction.
- itchy, dry cracking- often assoc. with personal or family hx allergy. ex: excema
- Contact: chemicals, biologic agent- poison ivy
- Stasis: assoc. with venous insufficiency. ex: bad circulation. edema.
- Impetigo-staph or strep (children)
- Cellulitis: tissue inflammation- staph or strep, often in lower extremities (adults)
- Herpes Zoster (shingles)
- -vericella virus
- - Chicken pox
- -hands, fingers, feet
- - can freeze or burn
- Ringworm (tinea corporis)
- Athlete's foot (tinea pedis)
- Scabies- mites
- Pediculosis- LIce