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“To amend the Public Health Service Actto make the provision of technicalservices for medical imagingexaminations and radiation therapytreatments safer, more accurate,and lesscostly .” What is this?
Purpose of the care bill?
- More Accurate
- Less costly
Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health care Organizations
The QA officer's job in an organization?
- Establish criteria
- Monitor performance
- Collect data
- Analyze data
- Evaluate data
Quality Control: Aspect of QA that is concerned with the __________ technical standards
- Calcium tungstate
- Barium Sulfate
- Rare Earth: (Gadolinium, Lanthanum, Yttrium)
Rare earth phosphors?
Wire mesh test is used to test?
Film screen contact
Single emulsion film: Emulsion side is _____ and the non-emulsion side is ________. Which side goes towards intensifying screen?
Film Identification "Must Have"?
- Date of exposure
- Full name of patient
- Pt ID number
- Name of institution
- Side marker (LorR)
Invisible image stored in theemulsion?
The visible image, formed when the ______ image is chemically processed?
latent image is processed = manifest image
To accumulate enough black metallic silver at sensitivity specks to yield a visible image is the purpose of?
Film processing involves what four steps (in correct order)?
Retention of the fixer in the emulsion– Causes the image to discolor to brown overtime.
What is a "cresent moon?" (dealing with film)
Where the film has been creased.
Note: Dailey processor QC
- • Clean crossover racks
- • Check developer temperature
- • Check wash temp
- • Check replenishment rates
- • Sensitometry and densitometry
An unintended hazy density on the radiograph that reduces contrast is called?
The response of film to exposure and processing
Sensitometer creates a uniform set of densities on a film, and a _____________ measures the optical density.
Densitometer: Reads on a scale of 0-4. 0 being ____ and 4 being _____. Typical diagnostic ranges are from ____ to ____.
- 0= all light goes through (clear)
- 4= no light got through (very dark)
- 0.25-2.5 is the range.
#1 problem with film processors?
"Damp films" are often caused by?
Developer not properly replenished. Thats where the hardening takes place.
Key thing with safe lights?
Make sure the color sensitivity of the safe light matches the film, meaning that the safe light will not expose the film.
Artifacts on film?
- Fingerprints (developer on fingers?)
- Static discharge
- Cresant moon crimp (bend the film)
The D Log E Curve is also known as?
- Sensitometric curve
- Characteristic curve
- Hurter and Driffield (H & D) curve
The H&D curve is a graph that represents?
Density produced relative to the exposure
H&D curve: Toe? Straight line? Shoulder?
- Toe- no or little exposure (clear area)
- Straight line- usable portion
- Shoulder- too black
Bass + Fog should not exceed?
Resolution (in film) is determined by?
- The smallness of the silver hallide crystals
- The smallness of the phosphor crystals
- (Inversely related to size of silver halidecrystals) Better resolution=smaller crystals
Resolution is measured in?
Faster film will have a curve closer to _____ of a graph.
The steeper the straight line on an H&D curve the more _______.
Latitude: The lower the slope (the more horizontal the line) the wider the latitude. The higher the slope (more vertical) less latitude.
What is a "pie line" caused from?
The roller on the processor.
Light field and x-ray beam congruence
+/- 2% of SID
Central ray indicator allowance
Distance indicator allowance?
Centering indicator allowance?
Tube angle allowance?
Timer Accuracy allowance?
Motorized spinning top is used for ______.
three phase machines
mA station accuracy?
+/- 10% between mA stations. Also +/- 10% between high and low
Wisconsin test cassette was used to test?
Kilo voltage Accuracy?
amount of filtration that will reduce beam intensity to one-half of its original value
Three types of focal spot test tools?
- Line pair resolution tools
- Star test patterns
- Pinhole cameras
Fluoroscopic Exposure rate?
- 2.1 R/min per mA station.
- Maxiumum of 10R per min (5 mA is highest rate)
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
National Electrical Manufactures Association
Digital Imaging and Communication.
Video Electronics Standard Association
Radiographer is the “true professional expert” of?
creating the image
Radiographer repeat rates should be between ______.
A quality assurance program monitors?
A quality control program is for?
Most quality control testing on major radiographic equipment is done?
It is acceptable to perform a __________test instead of measuring the focal spot size.
Comparing the mR output at 50 mA @ 0.2sec, 100 mA @ 0.1 sec, and 200 mA @0.05 sec is part of a test for _________
linearity, the allowance is +/- 10%
When a light in a view box burns out, then
all bulbs in the view box must be replaced
Processor crossover racks should becleaned on a _____ basis.
Notes: Values in medical ethics. Values that commonly apply to medical ethics discussion,
- Autonomy - the patient has the right to choose
- Beneficence - best interest of the patient.
- Non-maleficence - "first, do no harm"
- Confidentiality- patient-physician privilege
- Justice - distribution of scarce health resources
- Dignity - the patient has the right to dignity.
- Truthfulness and honesty
The Code of Ethics shall serve as a guide by which Registered Technologists and Candidates may evaluate their professional conduct as it relates to patients, healthcare consumers,employers, colleagues, and other members of the healthcare team.
Minimum standards of conduct
RULES OF ETHICS: They are mandatory standards of minimally acceptableprofessional conduct for all present Registered Technologists,Registered Radiologist Assistants, and Candidates.
Minimum total filtration for generalpurpose radiographic unit?
2.5 mm al/eq
The focal spot size should be evaluated ______, or whenever the x-ray tube is _______.
Exposure timer accuracy should be within ___% of the indicated time for exposure times greater than 10 milli-seconds
The ability of a radiographic unit to produce a constant radiation output for various combinations of ma and expousrue time is called?
Exposure linearity must bewithin ___% for adjacent mAstations.
Sequential radiation exposures should be reproducible to within ____%.
Screens should be cleaned not less often than?
every other month
Screen film contact should be evaluated _______ using the ___________ test.
- once or twice a year
- wire mesh pattern test
All protective aprons, gloves and gonadal shields should be radio graphed or fluoroscoped ________ for defects.
Viewbox illumination should be analyzed photometrically on an ______ basis.