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- Normal Value: 4.6 – 8.0
- Interpretation: pH of urine will indicate acid-base balance. An acid pH helps protect against bacterial growth. Urine that stands for several hours becomes alkaline
- Normal value: none or up to 8 mg/100 mL
- Interpretation: Normally protein is not present in urine. It is common in renal disease because damage to glomeruli or tubules allows protein to enter urine.
- Normal Value: None
- Interpretation: Clients whose diabetes mellitus is poorly controlled experience breakdown of fatty acids. End products of fat metabolism are ketones. Some clients with dehydration, Starvation, or excessive aspirin usage also have ketonuria.
- Normal value: none
- Interpretation: A positive test for occult blood occurs when intact erythgrocytes, hemoglobin, or myoglobin is present. IN women, blood in a routine urine specimen may result of comntamination with menstrual fluids.
- Normal value: 1.0053 – 1.030
- Interpretation: Specific gfavity measures concentration of particles in urine. High specific gravity reflects concentrated urine, and low specific gravity reflects diluted urine. Dehydration, reduced renal blood flow, and increased ADH secretion elevate specific gravity. Overhydration, early renal disease, and inadequate ADH secretion reduce specific gravity.
- Normal value: up to 2
- Interpretation: Damage to glomeruli or tubules allows RBCs to enter the urine. Trauma, disease, or surgery of the lower urinary tract also causes blood to be present
- Normal value: 0-4 per low-power field
- Interpretation: Greater numbers indicate urinary tract infection
- Normal value: None
- Interpretation: Casts are cylindrical bodies whose shapes take on likeness of objects within the renal tubule. Types include hyaline, WBCs, RBCs, granular cells, and epithelial cells. Their increased presence is always an abnormal finding and indicates renal alterations.
- Normal value: none
- Interpretation:Bacteria indicate UTI (Clientsdo not always have symptoms.)
- Normal finding: None
- Interpretation: Crystals are result of food metabolism. Excess crystals such as uric acid or calcium phosphate result in renal stone formation.