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Refers to the writing system of a language, specifically, the correct sequence of letters, characters, or symbols.
A term coined by Charles Read referring to children's phonetic spelling. Spellings generated by any speller when the word is not stored in memory.
A writing system containing characters or symbols representing individual speech sounds.
Matching letters- sometimes singly, sometimes in pairs-to sounds from left to right and create words.
The second layer or tier of English orthography in which patterns of letter sequences, rather than individual letters themselves, represent vowel sounds. This layer of information was acquired during the period of English history following the Norman Invasion. Many of the vowel patterns of English are of French derivation.
Letter sequences that function as a unit and are related to a consistent category of sound. Frequently these patterns form rhyming families, as in the ai of Spain, rain, and drain.
The third layer of English orthography including meaning units such as prefixes, suffixes, and word roots. These word elements were acquired primarily during the Renaissance when English was overlaid with many words of Greek and Latin derivation.
Refers to morphemes, or meaning units in the spelling of words, such as the suffix -ed which signals past tense, or the root graph in the words autograph or graphite.
A level of academic engagement in which instruction is comfortably matched to what an individual is able to grasp.
The study of word parts related to syntax and meaning.
A period of literacy development ranging from birth to beginning reading. This period precedes the letter name- alphabetic stage of spelling development.
Writing that bears no correspondence to speech sounds; literally, "before sound". _______ writing occurs during the emergent stage and typically consists of random scribbles, mock linear writing, or hieroglyphic-looking symbols.
The concept that letters and letter combinations are used to represent phonemes in orthography.
The second stage of spelling development in whcih students represent beginning, middle, and ending sounds of words with phonetically accurate letter choices. Often the selections are based on the sound of the letter name itself, rather than abstract letter-sound associations. The letter name h (aitch), for example, produces the /ch/ sound, and is often selected to represent that sound (HEP for chip).
Letter name-alphabetic spelling stage
Writing that demostrates some awareness that letters represent speech sounds. Literally, "part sound". Beginning and/or ending consonant sounds of syllables or words may be represented but medial vowels are usually omitted (ICDD for I see Daddy). _______ writing occurs at the end of the emergent stage or the very outset of the early letter name- alphabetic stage.
A sound that , when produced, birates the cocal cords. The letter sound d, for example, vibrates the vocal cords in a way that the letter sound t does not.
Representing the sounds of speech with a set of distinct symbols (letters), each denoting a single sound.
The process of dividing a spoken word into the smallest units of sound within that word. The word bat can be divided or segmented into three phonemes; /b/a/t/.
Nasals that occure before consonants, as in the words bump or sink. The vowel is nasalized as part of the air escapes through the nose during pronunciation.
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