Intro Pharmacology 2

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Intro Pharmacology 2
2011-02-16 00:47:08

Intro to pharmacology unit 1
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  1. Note: The following are not used regularly in conscious sedation but they are sedatives:

    Phenobrabital Nembutal
    Hydroxyzine Hydrochloide (Vistaril)
    used for nausea & vomiting
    Promethazine Hydrochloride (Phenegran)
    Nausea & vomiting
  2. What is the reversal agent (antagonists) for Benzodiazepines such as Valium and Versed?
    Flumazenil (Romazacon)
  3. What is the reversal agent (antagonists) for Demerol, Morphine, and Fentanyl?
    It is Naloxone Hydrochloide (Narcan) can reduce level of sedation w/o full reversal
  4. What is Morphine Sulfate?
    it is low cost highly reliable produces amnesia drowsiness and euphoria.
  5. What is Fentanyl Citrate?

    What is the brand name?
    It is a narcotic short acting synthetic analgesic works well with versed more potent than morphine has a quicker onset w/ a shorter duration potent respriatory depressant .

    Brand name is Sublimaze.
  6. What is Meperidine Hydrochloride?

    What is the brand name?
    It is a narcotic it is a Opioid(synthetic) analegesic 1/10 as potent as morphine has a rapid onset with a shorter duration.

    Brand name is Demerol.
  7. What are OPIOIDs?
    They are a synthetic narcotic used in conscious sedation most effective when administerd prior to pain. Decreases pain. Combination of antianxiety and opioids decrease pain and anxiety.
  8. What are narcotics?
    Narcotics effect the CNS and GI system it alters patient's mental alertness has the potenital for physical dependency if used for chronic illness reduces pain without loss of consciousness.
  9. What is a Analgesic?
    • It is administered to reduce pain and are classifies as narcotics (strong) or non narcotics (mild).
    • Narcotics analgesics are derived opium or synthetically produced (IPIOIDS)
  10. What is Dizaepam?
    What is the brand name?
    It is a Benzodazepine it is a antianxiety agent it induces amnesia. Has aticonvulsant propeties. Has a gradual onset of action and effects can last 1-2 days.
  11. What is Midazolam Hydrochloride?
    What is the brand name?
    It it a Benzodiazepine it is a anti anxiety medication (anxiolytic) widely used for conscious sedation. It is a short acting CNS depressant. It has a rapid onset. Muscle relaxant provides amnesia.

    Brand name is Versed.
  12. What does conscious sedation cause.
    • Its used for
    • Sedative
    • Amnesia
    • Hypnosis
    • Its has short duration and rapid onset.
  13. What kind of medications are used in conscious sedation?
    • Benzodiazepines
    • Sedatives
    • Anxiolytics
    • Administered to decrease activity of CNS
    • Reduces the desire for physical activity
  14. What kind of monitoring should be used during consious sedation?
    • 1. Continuous ECG
    • 2.Continious pulse oximetry
    • 3. BP
    • 4.Respriatroy rate & level of consciousness
    • 5.Continuous IV access
    • 6 Supplemental oxygen
    • 7. Emergency cart with defibrullator should be ready.
  15. What is the purpose of conscious sedation?
    • 1. Increases patient comfort
    • 2.Produces varied levels of amnesia
    • 3.Makes procedures easier on practitioner
    • 4.Very low risk
  16. What is conscious sedation?
    The administration of pharmacologic agents producing a depressed level of consciousness, but allowing the patient to retain the ability to independently maintain a patent airway, and respond to physical and/ or verbal stimuli.
  17. What are the liquid medications measured in units?
    • Liters (L) or milliliters
    • 1000 ml = 1 liter
    • One milliliter = to 1 cubic centimeter (cc)
    • One Ounce = 30 ml
  18. How do you convert a patient's weight from pounds (lbs) to kilograms (kg)?
    Divide the weight in pounds by 2.2

  19. Things to consider for dosage:
    -Careful when medicating children.
    -Metric system used to calculate dosage
    -Patients weight calculated in metric system for medication dosage
  20. What is the brand name for Hydroxyzine hydrochloride?
  21. What is the brand name for Diphenhydramine?
  22. What are antihistamine medications?
    Block histamine from producing adverse effects such as itching, inflammation, respratory distress, overall allergic reactions

    • EX. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl
    • Hydroxyzine Hydrochloride (Vistrail)
  23. What is nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug?
    Used as antiinflammatory for mild to moderate musculosketelal and soft tissue pain.

    • Ex. Ibuprofen
    • Naproxen (Aleive)
  24. If used long term what kind of damage can a analgesic do?
    Can cause liver, renal and cardiac damage.
  25. What is the most common analgesic used today?
  26. What is a Analgesic?
    Low potency pain reliver must not exceed 4000 mg per day it is associated with liver damage at high doses.
  27. What is Thrombolytic Medications?
    Used to break up newly formed blood clots used for thromolysis

    Ex Alteplase, Retaplase, Streptokinase, Urokinase
  28. What are Antiplatelet Medications?
    Used in patients who have had an ischemic event in the brain or heart. Used to inhibit platelet effects ( do not bind to from blood clots)

    Ex. acetylsaliylic acid/ASA(Asprin), Clopidogrel(plavix), Dipyridamole(Persantine)
  29. What are examples of anticoagulants?
    How do they work?
    • -Warfarin Sodium/Coumadin
    • Prevents absorption of vitamin K from intestines.
    • -Heparin
    • Affects the activity of thrombin thus inhibits clot formation
  30. What are Anticouagulants used for?
    Used in patients with history of blood clot formation or potential to develop clots.
  31. What will happen if diuretics are used improperly?
    It causes dehydraton and Kidney failure.
  32. What are examples of Diuretics?

    *Diuretics are also referred to as waterpills.
  33. What are diuretics?
    They Eliminate excess fluid and sodium from blood stream. Decrease overall pressure within the vessels.
  34. Which medications for Congestive Heart Failure increase force of heart contractions?
    • Digoxin
    • Epinephrine (adrinalin)
  35. How does a Antihypertensive work?
    • It lowers BP by vasodilation.
    • Decreases heartrate
    • Decreases sympathetic outflow from CNS
    • Decreases sodium and water retention

    • Ex. Nifedipine(procardia)
    • Furosemide (lasix
    • Reserpine
  36. What is a Antihypertensive?
    To assist in lowering blood pressure to safe long term goals. Effects heart failure by decreasing pressure against which heart must pump.

    *Some patients need more than one medication.
  37. What are calcium channel blockers?
    They prevent calcium from entering heart will lower blood pressure.
  38. What are Antiarrhythmic/Antidysrhythmic Medications?
    They effect the electrical conduction system. It suppresses excess electrical conduction in cardiac system. It decreases arrhythmia production.

    Ex. Lidocaine(Xylocaine), Adenosine, Digoxin, Procanimide, Beta blockers Calcium channel blockers.
  39. What are the Six Rights?
    • 1. Right Patient
    • 2. Right Drug
    • 3. Right Dosage
    • 4. Right Time
    • 5. Right Route
    • 6. Right documentation
  40. What are 5 subdivisions of the Parenteral route diveded into?
    • Intravenous,
    • Intramuscular,
    • Intrathecal,
    • Intradermal,
    • Subcutaneous
  41. What is a systemic medication?
    Usually pre & during procedures can be adminstered oral, rectal, sublingual, parenteral route.
  42. What is Local Medication?

    What are some examples?
    It is administered at puncture site such as a a local anesthetic causes an Analgesic effect usually injected and relives pain.

    • Ex. Lidocaine/Xylocaine
    • Procaine/Novacaine
  43. What are two major types of drug classifications?
    • Local
    • Systemic
  44. How many drips are in infusion pumps or sets?
    Microdrips =?
    • Mirodrips = 50-60 drops per ml
    • Macrodrips= 10-20 drops per ml
  45. How many drops per min. are in a routine IV drip?
    15-20 drops per minute
  46. What is a Hypotonic Solution?
    It is a solution with lower concentration of solutes than blood plasma.

    Ex. Causes a cell to enlarge
  47. What are Hypertonic solutions?
    It is a solution with. greater solute concentration that blood plasma.

    Ex. Causes a cell to shrink
  48. What is a Isotonic solution?
    It is solutions that are similar in content to physiologic fluids.
  49. What is osmolality?
    It is the weight or millosmols per kg of water.

    *use this when referring to CM and intravenous therapy
  50. What is osmolarity?
    The concentration per volume of solution.
  51. What is a Antagonists?
    "Blocking" drugs counteracts the effect or an agonist.
  52. What is Agonist?
    It is a drug that binds inself to receptors on specific cells or tissues and produces an effect.
  53. What is the Trade name/Brand name?
    It is a specific name of drug.
  54. What is the Generic name?
    It is derived from the chemical name. It indicates the chemical composition.
  55. What is the chemical name?
    It is used to describe the chemical makeup.
  56. What is Pharmacodynamics?
    The desired therapeutic effect the drug has on the body.

    *do not confuse with pharmacokinetics.
  57. What is Pharmocokinetics?
    It is the study of drug entrance, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
  58. What is Pharmacology?
    It is the study of drugs. The orgin, chemical composition, preparation and use.