Volume 4 Chapter 9

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amerelman
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65932
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Volume 4 Chapter 9
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2011-02-12 19:42:24
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Volume 4 Chapter 9
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  1. Vertebral Column
    The main support for the axis of the body, consists of 33 bones (vertebrae). AKA spinal column
  2. Vertebra
    On of the 33 bones of the spinal column
  3. Cervical Vertebrae
    The seven vertebrae that form the top of the spinal column
  4. Thoracic
    The twelve vertabrae that lie between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae which support the thorax as well
  5. Lumbar Vertebrae
    The five vertebrae that lie between the thoracic and sacral vertabrae helping support the lower back
  6. Sacrum
    Triangular bone formed by 5 fused vertebral bones, that lies between the fifth lumbar vertebra and the coccyx
  7. Coccyx
    Small bone, formed from 4 fused vertabrae that lies below the sacrum at the base of the vertebral column
  8. Intervertebral Disc
    Cartiaginous pad between the vertebrae that absorb shock
  9. Spinal Canal
    Opening in the vertebrae that accomodates the spinal cord. AKA vertebral foramen
  10. Cervical Spine
    • C1 (atlas)- supports head, permits nodding
    • C2 (axis)- permits rotation of head
    • C7- fist prominent vertebra felt
  11. Spinal Cord
    Central nervous system pathway responsible for transmitting sensory and motor impulses between the brain and the body
  12. Axon
    Extension of a neuron that serves as a pathway for transmission of signals to and from the brain. Major component of white matter
  13. Ascending Tracts
    Bundles of axons within the spinal cord that transmit signals from the body to the brain
  14. Descending Tracts
    Bundles of axons within the spinal cord that transmit signals from the brain to the body
  15. Ipsilateral
    Same side
  16. Contralateral
    Opposite side
  17. Spinal Meninges
    Protective structures that cover the spine, consisting of the dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater
  18. Spinal Nerves
    31 pairs of nerves that originate along the spinal cord from anterior and posterior nerve roots
  19. Dermatome
    Topographical region of the body surface innervated by a certain nerve root
  20. Myotome
    Muscle and tissue of the body innervated by spinal nerve roots
  21. Types of Primary and Secondary Spinal Cord Injury
    • Concussion
    • Contusion
    • Compression
    • Laceration
    • Hemorrhage
    • Transection
  22. Signs and Symptoms of Spinal Cord Injury
    • Paralysis of extremities
    • Pain with and without movement
    • Tenderness along spine
    • Impaired breathing
    • Spinal deformity
    • Priapism
    • Posturing
    • Loss of bowel or bladder control
    • Nerve impairment to extremities
  23. Spinal Concussion
    Temporary and transient disruption of cord function. No structural damage to the cord itself. Usually no residual effect
  24. Spinal Contusion
    Bruising of spinal cord. Some tissue damage, vascular leaking and swelling. Likely to repair itself with limited residual effects or non at all. Takes longer to resolve than concussion
  25. Spinal Compression
    May cause damage to cord. May result in cord ischemia, herniation.
  26. Spinal Laceration
    Spinal cord tear. Likely to result in hemmorhage into cord tissue, swelling, disruptions of cord function. Minor lacerations may yield some recovery. Severe lacerations usually result in permanent deficit.
  27. Spinal Hemorrhage
    Associated with a contusion, laceration or stretching. Can cause ischemia, swelling and irritation.
  28. Transection
    Injury that partially or completely severs the spina cord. Severe and permanent deficits.
  29. Paraplegia
    Paralysis of the lower limbs and trunk
  30. Quadriplegia
    Paralysis of all four limbs
  31. Complete Cord Transection
    A total severing of spinal cord
  32. Anterior Cord Syndrome
    Condition caused by bony fragments or pressure compressing the arteries of the anterior spinal cord and resulting in loss of motor function and sensation to pain and light touch and temperature below injury site.
  33. Central Cord Syndrome
    Condition usually related to hyperexternsion of the cervical spine that results in motor weakness, usually in the upper extremities and possible bladder dysfunction.
  34. Brown-Sequard Syndrome
    Condition cause by partial cutting of one side of the spinal cord resulting in sensory and motor loss on that side of the body.
  35. Cauda Equina Syndrome
    Condition caused when nerve roots at the lower end of the spinal cord are compressed, interrupting sensation, movement and function to the lower body. Bladder and bowel control are very vulnerable to the syndrome.
  36. Spinal Shock
    Loss of spinal reflexes after injury of the spinal cord that affects muscles innervated by the cord segments below the site of injury. Often transient if cord is not seriously damaged
  37. Neurogenic Shock
    Vasodilation caused by spinal cord injury, cerebral trauma or hemorrhage
  38. Autonomic Hyperreflexia Syndrome
    Condition associated with the body's adjustment to the effects of nerurogenic shock. Presentations include sudden hypertenson, bradycardia, headache, blurred vision, sweating and flushing above the point of injury.
  39. Kyphosis
    Exaggerated convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side
  40. Scoliosis
    Lateral deviation of the normally straight vertical line of the spine
  41. Ankylosing Spondylitis
    A form of inflammatory arthritis that causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae of the spinal and the sacroiliac joints in the pelvis and may also cause inflammation and pain in other body parts
  42. Bamboo Spine
    Development of bony bridges between vertebrae causing the spin to become stiff and inflexible, effectively fusing the spine. Sometimes caused by ankylosing spondylitis
  43. Spine Exam Quick
    • C5- Deltoid
    • C6- Wrist extension
    • C7- Wrist flexion
    • C8- Finger flexion
    • T1- Interossei (finger flaring)
    • L2/3- Quadriceps
    • L4- Ankle dorsiflexion/inversion
    • L5- Great toe extension
    • S1- Plantar flexion and eversion

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