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The main support for the axis of the body, consists of 33 bones (vertebrae). AKA spinal column
On of the 33 bones of the spinal column
The seven vertebrae that form the top of the spinal column
The twelve vertabrae that lie between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae which support the thorax as well
The five vertebrae that lie between the thoracic and sacral vertabrae helping support the lower back
Triangular bone formed by 5 fused vertebral bones, that lies between the fifth lumbar vertebra and the coccyx
Small bone, formed from 4 fused vertabrae that lies below the sacrum at the base of the vertebral column
Cartiaginous pad between the vertebrae that absorb shock
Opening in the vertebrae that accomodates the spinal cord. AKA vertebral foramen
- C1 (atlas)- supports head, permits nodding
- C2 (axis)- permits rotation of head
- C7- fist prominent vertebra felt
Central nervous system pathway responsible for transmitting sensory and motor impulses between the brain and the body
Extension of a neuron that serves as a pathway for transmission of signals to and from the brain. Major component of white matter
Bundles of axons within the spinal cord that transmit signals from the body to the brain
Bundles of axons within the spinal cord that transmit signals from the brain to the body
Protective structures that cover the spine, consisting of the dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater
31 pairs of nerves that originate along the spinal cord from anterior and posterior nerve roots
Topographical region of the body surface innervated by a certain nerve root
Muscle and tissue of the body innervated by spinal nerve roots
Types of Primary and Secondary Spinal Cord Injury
Signs and Symptoms of Spinal Cord Injury
- Paralysis of extremities
- Pain with and without movement
- Tenderness along spine
- Impaired breathing
- Spinal deformity
- Loss of bowel or bladder control
- Nerve impairment to extremities
Temporary and transient disruption of cord function. No structural damage to the cord itself. Usually no residual effect
Bruising of spinal cord. Some tissue damage, vascular leaking and swelling. Likely to repair itself with limited residual effects or non at all. Takes longer to resolve than concussion
May cause damage to cord. May result in cord ischemia, herniation.
Spinal cord tear. Likely to result in hemmorhage into cord tissue, swelling, disruptions of cord function. Minor lacerations may yield some recovery. Severe lacerations usually result in permanent deficit.
Associated with a contusion, laceration or stretching. Can cause ischemia, swelling and irritation.
Injury that partially or completely severs the spina cord. Severe and permanent deficits.
Paralysis of the lower limbs and trunk
Paralysis of all four limbs
Complete Cord Transection
A total severing of spinal cord
Anterior Cord Syndrome
Condition caused by bony fragments or pressure compressing the arteries of the anterior spinal cord and resulting in loss of motor function and sensation to pain and light touch and temperature below injury site.
Central Cord Syndrome
Condition usually related to hyperexternsion of the cervical spine that results in motor weakness, usually in the upper extremities and possible bladder dysfunction.
Condition cause by partial cutting of one side of the spinal cord resulting in sensory and motor loss on that side of the body.
Cauda Equina Syndrome
Condition caused when nerve roots at the lower end of the spinal cord are compressed, interrupting sensation, movement and function to the lower body. Bladder and bowel control are very vulnerable to the syndrome.
Loss of spinal reflexes after injury of the spinal cord that affects muscles innervated by the cord segments below the site of injury. Often transient if cord is not seriously damaged
Vasodilation caused by spinal cord injury, cerebral trauma or hemorrhage
Autonomic Hyperreflexia Syndrome
Condition associated with the body's adjustment to the effects of nerurogenic shock. Presentations include sudden hypertenson, bradycardia, headache, blurred vision, sweating and flushing above the point of injury.
Exaggerated convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side
Lateral deviation of the normally straight vertical line of the spine
A form of inflammatory arthritis that causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae of the spinal and the sacroiliac joints in the pelvis and may also cause inflammation and pain in other body parts
Development of bony bridges between vertebrae causing the spin to become stiff and inflexible, effectively fusing the spine. Sometimes caused by ankylosing spondylitis
Spine Exam Quick
- C5- Deltoid
- C6- Wrist extension
- C7- Wrist flexion
- C8- Finger flexion
- T1- Interossei (finger flaring)
- L2/3- Quadriceps
- L4- Ankle dorsiflexion/inversion
- L5- Great toe extension
- S1- Plantar flexion and eversion