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Studies have indicated that there are many biological and behavioral differences between male and female infants, at birth.
What are the differences in males and females?
Males are generally larger at birth; more muscle mass; more vulnerable to stress and show more motor activity than girls.
Girls are smaller; physiologically more mature; less vulnerable to stress and have a greater response to tactile stimulation at birth.
As male and female infants develope to about 6 months of age, how to male and female infants differ?
Females respond to visual stimulation with longer attention spans and are more socially responsive than are boys.
Females also walk, crawl, and sit up earlier than boys.
In addition, females learn to communicate with language at an earlier age, and boys tend to communicate using their whole bodies.
What is important to know when accessing the race of infants and providing care?
It is important to be familiar with the proper assessment charts. You want to choose the most appropriate chart for the race of the infant.
Effective communication must be used when providing care to a family that is of a different racial background than that of the provider. It helps to understand how this family understands health and health care.
No sterotyping is permitted. People within the same race still prevent an issue of diversity because each race is made up of individuals.
As far as genetics is concerned, what is the important in primary prevention?
Identifying families who are at an increased risk for birth defects and referring them to couseling.
In genetic couseling, what aspects are to be reviewed in the initial initerview?
1. maternal age - Down syndrome - women older than 35 years
- 2. ethnic background -
- eastern european jews - Tay Sachs disease
- blacks - sickle cell trait
3. family history - certain diseases are hereditary,
4. reproductive history - spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and previous live-born children with birth defects may indicate an increased risk
5. maternal disease - maternal disorders have been associated with a higher frequency of birth defects. Diabetes mellitus, seizure disorder, mental retardation, etc.