Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide
2011-02-13 01:38:10

Environmental Science Chapters 1 thru 5 Review
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  1. Environmental Science is a?
    • systematic approach learning about the environment
    • systematic study of our environment and out place in it
  2. Which of the following is not a molecule?
    Carbon: a molecule is made up of more than two atoms
  3. There is/are usually _____ tolerance limits responsible for limiting the number and location of species, hoever some organisms have _________________ that limits thier distribution.
    • many
    • a specific critical factor
  4. Malthus and Marx:
    disagreed about the root causes of overpopulation poverty

    Thomas Malthus (1798): human populations will outstrip thier food supply and collapse into starvation, crime, and misery.

    Karl Marx: populatoin growth resulted from poverty, resource depletion, pollution, and other social ills.
  5. The location of specific biomes can be predicted based on...
    precipitation and temperature
  6. In the normal I=PAT, which of the following would be representative of the A?
    I=PAT A is the affluence leve

    in the example, A means driving an SUV
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. Name the Biomes
    • Tropical Rainforest
    • Tropical Savannah
    • Desert
    • Temperate Grassland
    • Temperate Forest
    • Boreal Forest
    • Tundra
    • Temperate Rainforest
  12. Name the biome with lots of water falls
    • Tropical Rainforest
    • occur where rainfall is abundant-more than 200 cm (80 in) per year
  13. What land is submerged?
    • wetland, swamp
    • Wetlands are shallow ecosystems in which the land surface is saturated or submerged at least part of the year
  14. Name the biome with high latitude, few trees, and low species.
    • Tundra
    • Compared to other biomes, tundra has relatively low diversity
    • Temperatures are below freezing most of the year , making water unavailable to plants
    • Tundra occurs at high latitudes or on mountaintops
  15. Warm and areas with low temperature
    • Desert
    • Deserts occur where precipitation is uncommon and slight, usually with less than 30 cm of rain per year
  16. Name the biome that is 50-60 degrees with low temperature and has slow growing vegetation.
  17. Name the biome that is hot year round.
  18. Name what 3/4 of the planet is defined by salt water
    Marine Environment
  19. Name the biome that has mid-latitude, very high precipitation, and supports living.
    Temperate Rainforest
  20. Name the biome with rich soils.
    • Temperate Grassland
    • As in tropical latitudes, temperate (midlatitude) grasslands occur where there is enough rain to support abundant grass but not enough for forests
  21. Ideally Science?
    Methodical and logical
  22. What is the difference from extinction now and in the past?
    in the past it was a set rate and now it is due to human influence
  23. Define Species:
    • interbred with each other and capable of offspring
    • species are distinct organisms that persist because they can produce fertile offpsring
  24. What is one selected pressure on animals in the desert environment?
    Drought, sunlight
  25. Energy is the ability to what?
    • Both move an object and transfer heat from one object to another
    • Energy is the ability to do work such as moving matter over a distance or causing a heat transfer between two objects at different temperatures
  26. What is symbiosis?
    • When animals can coexist with one another
    • Symbiosis is a process where two or more species live intimately together.
    • There are three major types of symbiotic relationships: Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parasitism.
  27. What is the P in I=PAT?
  28. What is the sympatric specification?
    • When two species interact with each other
    • Species arise in the same location as the ancestor species
  29. Especially effective strategy for reducing intra specific competition is?
    different ecological niches for juveniles and adults
  30. What is the shape of the human growth curve in the past 800 years?
    J curve
  31. What is the difference between a K-selected and an R-selected species?
    • R-selected is having many offspring but a short life span
    • K-selected is having a small number of offspring with a long life span taking care of them
  32. Describe how photosynthesis works?
    • CO2 plus Hco sunligh C6,H12,O6 produces sugar molecules and energy
    • Photosynthesis converts radiant energy into useful, high-quality chemical energy in the bonds that hold together organic molecules
    • Animals eat plants-or other animals that have eaten plants-and break down the organic molecules in their food through cellular respiration to obtain energy
  33. Why do many demographers believe that generally birth rates decrease?
    Yes because women are more educated now and they are learning to use birth and decide whether or not they want to have children
  34. What are the steps of the scientific method?
    • Identify Question
    • Form Testable Hypothesis
    • Collect Data To Test Hypothesis
    • Interpret Results
    • Report For Peer Review
    • Publish Findings
  35. What kind of specification arises from geographic isolation?
    • Geographic isolation results in allopatric speciation- species arise in non-overlapping geoprahic locations
    • (squirrel example)
  36. Historically, the greatest threat to grassland conservation is?
  37. What is the difference of hypothesis and theory?
    Hypothesis is an educated guess and a theory is generated and agreed upon by scientists
  38. Zero population growth (ZPG)occurs when?
    birth + emigration = death + immigration
  39. What is the difference between a life span and a life expectancy?
    Expectancy is the average and life span is the longest someone has lived
  40. What are the four categories of organic compounds?
    • Lipids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Nucleotides
  41. The typical pattern of following death rates and due to improved living conditions that accompanion economic development is knows as a _____________________.
    demographic transition
  42. Name one environmental problem and a sign of hope for the problem.
    Population is a problem and women being more educated is a hope for the problem
  43. Disguise, fam, and war
  44. What is a sustainable development?
    • providing good for the environment
    • pollution has been decreased and the population has stabilized in most industrialized countries and even in some very poor countries where democracy has been stabilized
    • Over the past 25 years, the average number of children born per women worldwide has decreased from 6.1 to 2.6
  45. What are two important nutrients in fertilizers?
    Nitrogen and phosphorous fuel
  46. Why are there less tertiary consumers than plants in the environment?
    Less energy
  47. What is the difference between a population and community?
    • A population consists of all the members of a species living in a given area at the same time
    • All of the populations of organisms living and interacting in a particular area make up a community
  48. How do animals get thier energy?
    cellular respiration
  49. The first law of thermodynamics and the law of conservation of matter are similar in that?
    • under normal conditions neither
    • according to the conservation of matter: under ordinary circumstances, matter is neither created nor destroyed, but rather is recycled over and over again
    • the first law of thermodynamics states that enegy is conserved
  50. What is the difference between an open and closed system?
    • Open is when many different species can come in and closed is like in a zoo where they are closed in and other species cannot come in
    • Open systems are those that receive inputs from thier surroundings and produce outputs that leave the systems
    • A closed system exchanges no energy or matter with its surroundings
  51. Ecological diversity is the measure of the number of?
    niches, atrophic levels, and ecological pressures of biological community
  52. Where does the independant variable go on a graph?
    on the x-axis
  53. What is an adaptation of a saguaro cactus?
    the needles for protection and the ability to hold water
  54. HIPPO what does it stand for?
    • Habitation Destruction
    • Invasion Species
    • Population
    • Pollution
    • Over Harvesting
  55. How might the dependant ratio affect the United States in the future?
    • the number of non-working number ratio between working and non-working
    • there are gonna be too many non-workers that will be sustained by the working which will be less
  56. What is the difference of natural and manipulative experiments?
    • natural experiments are in their own normal nature and a manipulative experiment has been manipulated by the researcher
    • ex: an animal is seen in its habitual nature environment and in another way it is seen in a lab with a manipulated environment
  57. Name two ways in which humans benefit from biodiversity?
    medicine and food
  58. In the partnership of lichen, the fungus provides ____________ and the relationship is best described as ____________.
    • structure and moisture
    • holding ability; mutualism
  59. What is competitive exclusive principles?
    two species when fighting
  60. Deffine matter
    matter is anything that takes up space and has mass
  61. The carrying capacity refers refers to the maximum number of animals that can be supported in an environment
  62. What is the difference between inter and intra competition?
    • competition among members of the same species is called intraspecific competition
    • competition between members of different species is calle interspecific competition
  63. A biological community productivity is a measure of what?
    the amount of biomass produced in the community
  64. What is the difference between utilitarian and biocentric conservation?
    Utilitarian is cause its there
  65. Name two adaptation of animals
  66. Deductive reasoning
    • if all insects have six legs then all insects will have six legs
    • logical reasoning from general to specific is known as deductive reasoning
  67. Define climate community
    is a measure of the variety of versions of the same genes mutualism and parasitism
  68. How is it possible that an atom of carbon in your body could have been part of the dinosaurs?
    • an atoms cannot be created not destroyed
    • according to the principle of conservation of matter under ordinary circumstances, matter is neither created nor destroyed, but rather is recycled over and over again
    • your body probably contains atoms that once made up the body of a dinosaur
  69. Name two protanalist pressures?
    • education, money, care, support
    • Factors that increase people's desire to have children are called pronatalist pressures: source of support for elderly parents, source of curent income and help with household chores, replace members of society
  70. The object of a species recovery plan is?
    increase an endangered species population until it is no loger endagered