AP Human Geography-Chapter 8 Review Questions
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What is a state?
A state is an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs.
What is a nation?
A country with its own nationality and land.
What is sovereignty?
Sovereignty means independence from control of its internal affairs by other states.
What has happened to the number of sovereign states in the world since 1960?
They have increased by a 100.
What is gerrymandering?
Gerrymandering is the process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
What is a good example of a nation divided between more than one state?
What is the world's largest state?
What is a nation-state?
A nation-state is a state with very small land areas with its own sovereign rule and own ethnicity.
Where did the first widespread use of a nation-state concept occur?
In Western Europe.
What is a colony?
A colony is a territory that is legally tied to a soverign state rather than being complete independent.
What is a city-state? Give an example.
A city-state is a sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside. Mesopotamia.
What is the only large land mass not part of a sovereign state?
What were the motives of European states in establishing colonies?
- -To promote Christianity
- -To extract useful resouces and to serve as captive markets for their products
- -To establish relative power through the number of their colonies.
---God, Gold and Glory
What is imperialism? Colonialism?
Imperialism is control of terrytory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. Colonialism is the effort by one country to establish settlements in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territory.
Describe the British empire by the year 1900.
It was the largest colonial empire. The 'Sun never set on the British'. They had colonies in every continent and so on.
Describe what is used to separate states or create boundaries.
- -Physical features of a region. (River, etc.)
- -Cultural dividers of region. (Language, etc.)
What creates the boundary between the U.S. and Canada?
The 49 N latitude line.
Why were boundaries redrawn throughout much of Europe after WWI?
In order to build more stability, they had redrawn the boundaries to group the languages together.
- One area: France.
- (Pro: Unity Con: Cultural mix of neighboring areas.)
- Long and thin:
- (Pro: Access to more resources nearby Con: Poor internal communication)
- Completely surrounds another state
- (Pro: Cultural diversity Con: Sharing)
- South Africa
Fragmented by Water/Land
- Not whole. Separated.
- (Pro: More resources Con: Hard to protect in a invasion)
- Otherwise compact but with a large extention
- (Pro: More land Con: Easy to conquer in a invasion)
What is a frontier?
A frontier is a zone where no state exercises complete political control.
Why did the Germans establish the proruption known as the Caprivi Strip in present day Namibia?
It disrupted communications among the British colonies of southern Africa. It also provided the Germans with access to the Zambezi, one of Africa's most important rivers. They also wanted more access to the resources of Central Africa.
- -By Mackinder
- -Suggests that whoever owns Eastern Europe and Western Asia has the political power and capital to rule the world. -Hitler believed in the theory.-Eastern Europe contains goods and abundant resources.
- -By Spykman
- -Adapted the ideas of the Heartland
- -Believes in forming alliances to keep the Heartland in check.
- -Heartland controls the land while Rimland controls the sea.
- By CIA
- -When one country experiences rebellion or political disunity, other countries around it will too.
- -Established in response to the communist incursions.
After the breakup of the Soviet Union where were most of Russian people clustered?
Primate city...examples...whose theory is this?
- It's a city that is not only the political nucleus but also is many times more economically powerful than any other city in the state.
- -London, Paris, New York City
- -By the geographer Mark Jefferson
Why is conflict so widespread in Africa? (Explain the European colonial powers legacy)
It's because the European colonies wrongly grouped together different ethnicities together in states.
What is a unitary state?
It's a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
What is a forward capital? Examples...
- It's a capital city built by a state to achieve a national goal.
In 2002 the Organization of African Unity was replaced by what?
The African Union.
What is the purpose of the United Nations?
-Being a neutral force in peacekeeping.
What are the benefits of belonging to the European Union?
- -Same currency
- -No need of passports when traveling within the EU
- -Same legal policies
- -Free trade with a few exceptions
- -World's wealthiest market.
How did the European Union change in the end of the Cold War?
They had turned to economic cooperation rather than military cooperation.
What are the characteristics of extremly small states?
- -Easier communication
- -Less resources
- -Easier to defend
How does terrorism differ from assassinations and other acts of political violence?
Terroism aims attacks on ordinary people rather than big political leaders.
Al-Qaeda was founded by Osama bin Laden with his father's money. Osama bin Laden is a religious Muslim. Osama bin Laden declared war against the U.S. for supporting Saudi Arabia and Israel. Al-Qaeda was the terrorist group that caused 911. Al-Qaeda is not a single unified organization, and the number involved is unknown.
Why do states cooperate with each other?
-For political, economic and cultural advantages.
What is NAFTA? Purpose?
It is the North American Free Trade Agreement. It is designed to remove tariff barriers between the U.S., Canada and Mexico.
Give an example of a landlocked state.
What is an exclave?
It's a terrritorial political extension of another state.
What is an enclave?
It's a state or part of a state surrounded completely by another state.
What is irredentism?
- -The attempt by one country to provoke coups or separatist movements in another country.
- -Done by media, radio, or literature.
- -US practices irredentism to promote capitalism and democracy.
What is the difference between unitary and federal states?
Unitary states put more power in the central government. Federal states put more power in the local goverment units.
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