Pharmacology Ch. 1

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Pharmacology Ch. 1
2011-02-13 00:32:56

Introduction to Veterinary Pharmacology
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  1. Chemical name
    describing the chemical composition of a drug
  2. Nonproprietary Name/ Generic Name
    more concise name given to the specific compound, usually listed as the active ingredient
  3. Proprietary Name/ Trade Name
    unique name a manufacturer gives its particular brand of a drug
  4. Dose
    the amount of drug that is administered at one time to the patient
  5. Dosage
    the general amount that any animal or patient should be given over time
  6. Drug dosage form
    description of its physical appearance or type; and often indicates by which method the drug is administered

    ex. tablets, capsules, solutions, liniments
  7. Molded Tablets
    soft, chewable tablets in which the powdered drug is mixed with lactose, sucrose, or dextrose and a flavoring to encourage the patient to chew

    ex. chewable vitamins and heartworm preventative
  8. Enteric-coated tablets
    special covering over the powdered drug that protects the drug from the harsh acidic environment of the stomach and prevents dissolution of the tablet until it enters the more alkaline environment of the intestine
  9. Tablets or Caplets
    most commonly dispensed, powders compressed into a solid, binders, can be scored, if sealed in foil do not score
  10. Sustained-release formulations
    designed to release only small amounts of drug into the intestinal lumen over an extended period; should not be broken in half; shorter tract in animals therefore not as effective
  11. Gel caps (capsules)
    are powdered drugs placed in a gelatin capsule; gelatin becomes soft and readily dissolves in the stomach releasing the powdered drug
  12. Lozenges or Troches
    are powdered drugs incorporated into a hard candy-like tablet; intended to be held in mouth and slowly dissolve, releasing small amounts of drug at a time; not used in veterinary medicine
  13. Suppositories
    dosage forms designed to be placed in the rectum, where they dissolve and release the drug to be absorbed across the membranes of the intestinal wall
  14. Drug solution
    drug completely dissolved in a liquid vehicle that does not settle out, or precipitate if left standing
  15. Suspension
    contains drug particles that are suspended, but not dissolved, in the liquid vehicle; usually settle to the bottom of an undisturbed container; shake to be resuspended
  16. Emulsion
    suspension in which the drug is mixed with liquid fat or an oil
  17. Syrups
    solutions in which the drug is dissolved in sugar water (85% sucrose); used to disguise the unpleasant taste
  18. Elixirs
    orally administered solutions of drug dissolved in alcohol; used for drugs that do not readily dissolve in water; strong taste makes it difficult to administer
  19. Tinctures
    alcohol solutions meant for application to the skin, ex. Iodine used as an antiseptic
  20. Topical
    application to the skin
  21. Liniments
    drugs dissolved or suspended in an oil base and applied to the skin by rubbing
  22. Lotions
    drug suspensions or solutions that are dabbed, brushed, or dipped onto the skin without rubbing; ex. poison ivy lotion
  23. Ointments
    can be either suspensions or solutions and are designed to liquefy at body temperatures; spread more readily across
  24. Pastes
    semisolid, orally administered dosage forms that tend to keep their semisolid form at body temperature; commonly packaged in large plastic syringes; ex. oral deworming
  25. Gels
    drugs suspended in a semisolid or jelly-like form, such as toothpaste
  26. Injectable dosage forms
    administered by a needle and syringe and are often referred to by the type of container in which they are supplied
  27. Ampules
    small, airtight glass containers; the neck is broken to access the drug; meant to be used completely at one time because it cannot be resealed
  28. Multidose vials
    glass bottles with rubber stoppers through which the drug can be withrawn multiple times; keep stopper clean; ex: antibiotic, anesthetics, and antiinflammatory drugs
  29. Single-dose vials
    glass bottles with rubber stoppers in which all the drug is used at one time; used with vaccines
  30. Repository/ depot
    forms of injectable drugs; formulated to prolong absorption of the drug from the site of administration and thus provide a more sustained, effective drug concentration in the body
  31. Implants
    form of repository; injected or inserted under the skin; designed to release or dissolve medication over an extended period
  32. Extract
    describes where the drug came from; therapeutic agent composed of specially prepared plant or animal parts rather than chemically synthesized
  33. Drug package inserts
    included with each container of drug sent to veterinarian; most up to date information on the drug
  34. Formularies
    small booklets containing common drug doses or larger reference books; must have most current edition
  35. Controlled substance or Schedules
    Range from C I to C V; the higher the roman numeral to less potential for abuse of the drug and regulatory control
  36. Active ingredient
    the drug itself; generic name
  37. Inert ingredients
    any preservatives, stabilizers, liquid media, or any additives that make up the dosage form
  38. Indications
    tells for what purpose the drug may be used
  39. Precaution Listing
    describe fairly rare adverse reactions or mild side effects; veterinarian must decide if the benefits of the drug outweigh the potential side effect
  40. Warnings
    more serious or frequent side effects than those found in precautions; potentially life-threatening adverse reactions; can still be given if benefits outweigh the risk
  41. Contraindications
    circumstances in which the drug should not be used
  42. Extra-label use/ off-label use
    drug being used in a manner other than that listed on the drug's label or listing
  43. Four sources of drugs
    • 1. Chemical synthesis
    • 2. Minerals
    • 3. Plants
    • 4. Animals
  44. Posology
    the study of drug dosage
  45. Pharmacy
    science of preparing and dispensing medications
  46. Pharmacodynamics
    action and fate of drugs in the body
  47. Pharmacokinetics
    absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs in the body
  48. Pharmacotherapeutics
    how we use drugs to treat diseases
  49. Toxicology
    the study of poisons
  50. Prescriptions
    Rx; order to pharmacist written by physician, veterinarian, or dentist to prepare, affix label and sell
  51. Creams
    thicker compounds incorporating drug in water/oil mix; once on skin the water evaporates and left with oil and drug; not that common; ex. insecticidal cream
  52. Aerosols
    spray with propellants
  53. Transdermal patches
    drugs delivered through the patch on skin; ex. nitroglycerin and pain patches
  54. Oral administration
    by mouth through G.I. tract
  55. Parenteral Administration
    not involving G.I. tract; includes injections, inhalation, and topical
  56. Factors to Consider when giving a Drug
    • 1. Desired response: different routes= different responses
    • 2. Properties of drug
    • 3. Pathological state of patient
    • 4. Always follow manufacturers directions
  57. AMDUCA
    Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994; allows extra-label use
  58. Compounding
    extra label use; pharmacy mix to veterinarian's order
  59. Drug Order
    order from veterinarian to technician to dispense and distribute drug within practice
  60. U.S.P
    United States Pharmacopeia; organization that sets the standards for manufacture of drugs in the U.S.