Disease related dietary management

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BrigittaLis
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66007
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Disease related dietary management
Updated:
2011-02-13 05:43:14
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Disease related dietary management
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Disease related dietary management
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  1. Peptic ulcers
    • Regular meals and medications such as histamine receptor antagonists that block secretion of hydrochloric acid
    • Treated with antibiotics
    • Encourage clients to avoid foods that increase stomach acidity and pain such as:
    • - Caffeine
    • - Decaffeinated coffee
    • - Frequent milk intake
    • - Citric acid juices
    • - - Certain seasoning (hot chili pepper, chili powder, black pepper)
    • Discourage smoking, alcohol, aspirin, and NSAIDs
    • Teach clients to avoid eating large quantities of food and to eat three regular meals without snacks especially at bedtime
  2. IBD (chrone's and idiopathic ulcerative colitis)
    • Elemental diets
    • Formula with the nutrients in their simplest form ready for absorption
    • Pareneteral nutrition when symptoms such as diarrhea and weight loss are prevalent
    • In chronic stage of disease, a regular highly nourishing diet is appropriate
    • Vitamins and iron supplements are often required to correct or prevent anemia
  3. IBS
    Clients manage irritable bowel syndrome by increasing fiber, reducing fat, avoiding large meals, and avoiding lactose or sorbitol-containing foods for susceptible individuals
  4. Short bowl syndrome
    These clients require lifetime feeding with either elemental enteral formulas or pareneteral nutrition
  5. Celiac's disease
    gluten-free diet
  6. Diverticulitis
    • Treated with a moderate- or low-residue diet until the infection subsides
    • Afterwards, a high-fiber diet is generally prescribed for chronic diverticula problems
  7. Cardiovascular
    • - Intended to reduce risk factors for the development of hypertension and coronary artery disease
    • - Balancing caloric intake with exercise to maintain a health body weight
    • - Eating a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grain high fiber foods
    • - Eating fish at least 2 times per week
    • - Limiting food and beverages high in added sugar and salt
    • - Limit saturated fat to less than 7%, trans-fat to less than 1% and cholesterol to less than 300 mg/day
    • - Lean meats and vegetables, fat-free dairy products and limited intake of fats
  8. Diabetes Mellitus 1 and 2
    • - Individualize the client according to the client’s age, build, weight, and activity level
    • - Maintain carbohydrate intake
    • - Include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and low-fat milk
    • - Men: 60-75 g per meal
    • - Women: 45-60 g per meal
    • - Limit saturated fat to less than 7% of the total calories and cholesterol intake to less than 200 mg/day
    • - Recommend foods containing fiber
    • - Clients can substitute sucrose-containing foods for carbohydrates but they need to avoid excess energy intake
    • - Sugar alcohols and nonnutritive sweeteners are able to be eaten as long as the recommended daily intake levels are followed
    • - Goal of MNT is to have glycemic levels that are normal or as close to normal as safely possible, lipid and lipoprotein profiles that decrease the risk of microvascular and cardiovascular, neurological, and peripheral vascular complications, and blood pressure in the normal or near-normal range
    • - Be aware of signs and symptoms of hypo/hyperglycemia
  9. HIV/AIDS
    • Focuses on maximizing kilocalories and nutrients
    • Diagnose and address each cause of nutritional depletion in the care plan
    • Individually tailored nutrition support progresses in stages from oral, to enteral, and lastly to pareneteral
    • Good hand hygiene and food safety are essential because of the client’s reduced resistance to infection
    • Small, frequent, nutrient-dense meals that limit fatty foods and overly sweet food are easier to tolerate
    • Clients benefit from eating cold foods and drier or saltier foods with fluid in between
  10. Cancer
    • Goal is to meet the increased metabolic needs of the client
    • Focuses on maximizing the intake of nutrients and fluids
    • Individualize diet choices to the client’s needs, symptoms, and situation
    • Encourage clients to eat small frequent meals and snacks that are nutritious and easy to digest

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