cognitive psych

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pandaboo
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66050
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cognitive psych
Updated:
2011-02-13 14:59:21
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exam
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chapters 3 and 4
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  1. visual persistence
    the apparent persistence of a visual stimulus beyong its physical duration
  2. visual sensory memory
    temporary visual buffer that holds visual information for brief periods of time
  3. span of apprehension
    the number of individual items recallable after any short display
  4. whole report condition
    • people are to report any letters they can
    • -the whole display is to be reported
  5. partial report condition
    only one of the rows was to be reported
  6. icon
    the visual image that resides in iconic memory
  7. decay
    simple loss of information across time, by a fading process
  8. interference
    forgetting caused by the effects of intervening stimulation or mental processing
  9. backward masking
    a later visual stimulus can drastically affect the perception of an earlier one
  10. erasure
    when the contents of visual memory are degraded by subsequent visual stimuli
  11. beta movement
    illusory movement that occurs when two or more pictures are viewed in rapid succession, as in a movie
  12. phi phenomenon
    • illusory movement that occurs when two images are viewed in rapid succession in different pointsin spaces
    • example- chasing christmas lights
  13. focal attention
    mental processes of visual attention
  14. trans-saccadic memory
    the memory system that is used across a series of eye movements
  15. templates
    stored models of all categorizable patterns
  16. feature analysis
    a very simple pattern, a fragment or component that can appearin combination with other features across a wide variety of stimulus patterns
  17. bottom-up processing
    processing is driven by the stimulus pattern, the incoming data
  18. conceptually drive processing effects
    context and higher level knowledge influence lower lever processes
  19. context
    surround information and your own knowledge
  20. repetition blindness
    the tendency to not perceive a pattern, whether a word or picture, when it is quickly repeated
  21. connectionist modeling
    a theoretical and computational approach to some of the most challenging issues in cognitive science.
  22. geons
    • basic primitives;
    • simple three dimensional geometric forms
  23. agnosia
    failure or deficit in recognizing objects
  24. prosopagnosia
    a disruption of face recognition
  25. apperceptive agnosia
    a basic disruption in perceiving patterns
  26. associative agnosia
    the person cannot associate the pattern with meaning
  27. modality effect
    the advantage in recall of the last few items in a list when those items have been present orally rather than visually
  28. suffix effect
    inferior recall of the end of the list in the presence of an additional, meaningful, non-list auditory stimulus
  29. problem of invariance
    the sounds of speech are not invariant from one time to the next
  30. attention
    the mental processes of concentrating effort on a stimulus or a mental event
  31. input attention
    the basic processes of getting sensory information into the cognitive system
  32. vigilance
    • the maintenance of attention for infrequent events over long periods of time
    • example= air traffic control
  33. explicit processing
    involves consciousness processing, conscious awareness that a task is being performed, and usually conscious awareness of the outcome of that performance
  34. implicit processing
    processing that involves no conscious awareness
  35. orienting reflex
    the reflexibe redirection of attention that orients you toward the unexpected stimulus
  36. attention capture
    the spontaneous redirection of attention to stimuli in the world based on physical characteristics.
  37. habituation
    • a gradual reduction of the orienting response back to baseline
    • -you get used to a stimulus, start to ignore it or not notice it's even there anymore
  38. facilitation (benefit)
    a faster than baseline response resulting from the useful advance information
  39. cost
    a response slower than baseline because of misleading cue
  40. spotlight attention
    the mental attention focusing mechanism that prepares you to encode stimulus information
  41. inhibition of return
    recently checked locations are maked by attention as places that the search process would not return to
  42. hemineglect
    a disruption or decreased ability to attend to something in the left field of vision
  43. controlled attention
    a deliberative, voluntary allocation of mental effort or concentration
  44. selective attention
    the ability to attend to one source of information while ignoring or excluding other ongoing stimuli around us
  45. filtering
    the mental process of eliminating distractions
  46. dual task procedure
    two tasks are presented such that one task captures attention as completely as possible
  47. shadowing task
    to repeat the message out loud as soon as it is heard
  48. mind wandering
    the situation in which a person's attention and thoughts wander from the current task to some other, innapropriate line of thought
  49. inhibition
    it actively suppresses mental representations of salient but irrelevant information so that its activation level is reduced, perhaps below the resting baseline level
  50. negative priming
    slower to respond to the target trials when they were preceded by irrelevant distractor primes compared to control trials where the ignored object on the prime trial was an unrelated item.
  51. automaticity
    with little or no necessary involvement of a conscious, limited attention mechanism.
  52. attentional blink
    a brief slow down in mental processing due to having processed another very recent event
  53. priming
    mental activation of a concept by some means
  54. action slips
    unintended, often automatic, actions that are innapropriate for the current situation

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