How do mobility and stability relate to one another?
inversely - as one increases, the other decreases
Based on structure, what are the three types of joints?
fibrous, cartilaginous, & synovial joint
Based on function, what are three types of joints?
synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, & diarthrosis
Where do gomphoses occur in the human body?
articulations of teeth
How are gomphoses classified functionally?
What is a suture?
immobile fibrous joints found between certain bones of the skull?
Where do sutures occur in the human body?
How are sutures classified functionally?
What is a syndesmosis?
fibrous joints with a fastening
How are syndesmoses classified functionally?
What broad ligamentous sheet connect bones in a syndesmosis?
Where do syndesmoses occur in the human body>
radius & ulna
tibia & fibula
List the three types of fibrous joints.
gomphosis, sutures, & syndesmoses
Cartilaginous joints are obviously linked by cartilage. Do they have a joint cavity?
What type of cartilage joins bones in synchondroses?
What is the example of synchondroses within growing bones?
What are the two examples within the rib cage?
first sternocostal joint & costochondral joints
What is the functional classification of synchondroses?
What type of cartilage holds bones together in symphysis?
What is the functional classification of symphyses?
List two examples of symphyses.
pubic symphysis & intervertebral joints
List the two types of cartilaginous joints.
synchondroses & symphyses
Do synovial joints have a joint cavity?
What is the functional classification of synovial joitns?
What structure surrounds a synovial joint and forms its cavity?
What is the outer layer of a joint capsule?
What is the inner layer of a joint capsule?
What liquid fills the joint cavity of a synovial joint?
What structure forms the liquid that fills the joint cavity of a synovial joint?
What are the three functions of synovial fluid?
lubrication, nourishment, & shock absorber
What type of cartilage covers the articulating surfaces of bones in a synovial joint?
What is the thing layer of hyaline cartilage on the articulating surfaces of bones called?
What are bands of dense irregular connective tissue that join bone to bone?
What is a fibrous, saclike structure that is lined with synovial membrane, contains synovial fluid, and reduce friction during movement?
What are elongated bursae wrapped around tendons?
Based on movement with repect three intersecting perpendivular planes, what type of synovial joint moves in one plane?
Based on movement with respect three intersecting perpendicular planes, what type of synovial joint moves in two planes?
Based on movement with respect three intersecting perpendicular planes, what type of synovial joint mvoes in mupltiple planes?
multiaxial or triaxial
Based on function, what type of joints are all synovial joints?
What type of synovial joint is uniaxial and is the simplest?
planar (gliding) joint
What type of synovial joint is uniaxial and composed of one convex surface fitting into a concave surface and allows movement in only one plane?
What type of synovial joint is uniaxial and is formed by a rounded surface fitting into a ring formed by a ligament and another bone? This type of joint allows the rotation of one bone around its long axis in relation to the second bone.
What type of synovial joint is biaxial with an oval, convex surface on one bone articualting with an oval, concave surface on a second bone?
What type of synovial joint is formed by two opposing articular surfaces that are convex in one direction and concave in another and that permit movements in all directions except axial rotation?
What type of synovial joint is multiaxial and is formed by a spherical articulating head of one bone fitting into a rounded, cuplike socket on a second bone?
What type of movement of a synovial joint involves a simple movement in which two opposing surfaces slide slightly back-and-forth or side-to-side with respect to one another? In this type the angle between the bones does not change and only limited movement is possible in any direction.
What type of mvoement involves an increase or decrease in a joint angle?
What type of movement is the lateral carrying away of a body part from the midline?
What type of movement is the medial movement of a body part toward the midline?
What type of movement brings about a decrease in the angle of a joint?
What type of movement brings about an increase in the angle of a joint?
What type of movement increases the angle of a joint beyond 180 degrees (beyond the anatomical position)?
What type of movement occurs when the trunk of the body moves in a coronal plane laterally?
What type of movement is a sequence of movements in which the proximal end of an appendage remains relatively stationary while the distal end makes a circular motion?
What type of movement is a pivoting motion in which a bone turns on its own long axis?
What type of movement is a pivoting motion in which a bone turns on its own long axis so that the anterior surface moves laterally?
What type of movement is a pivoting motion in which a bone turns on its own long axis so that the anterior surface moves medially?
What type of movement is the inferior movement of a body part?
What type of movement is the superior movement of a body part?
What type of movement occurs when the dorsum of the foot or hand moves so that the angle between it and the limb decreases?
What type of movement occurs when the ankle joint moves to point the toes inferiorly?
What type of movement occurs when the wrist moves to decrease the space between the palm and forearm?
What type of movement occurs when the intertarsal joints are moved to face the sole of the foot laterally?
What type of movement occurs when the intertarsal joitns are moved to turn the sole of the foot medially?
What type of mvoement occurs so that the palsm of the hand is directed posteriorly or inferiorly?
What type of movement occurs so that the palm of the hand is directed anteriorly and superiorly?
What type of movement occurs when a body part moves anteriorly in a horizontal plane?
What type of movement occurs when a body part moves posteriorly in a horizontal plane?
What movement occurs when the thumb moves toward the palmar tips of the fingers as it crosses the palm of the head?
What movement occurs when the thumb moves away from the palmar tips of the fingers?
What joint occurs between the temporal bone and the mandible?
What structures separate the bodies of the vertebrae from C2-C3 to L5-S1?
What are the two components of an intervertebral disc?
anulus fibrosis & nucleus pulposes
Synovial joints occur between what aprts of vertebrae from C2 to L5-S1?
superior & inferior articular processes
What saddle joint is the only articulation between the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton?
What joint occurs between the scapula and the clavicle?
What is the most unstable joint of the body?
Which of the two bones of the forearm is involved in the articulation with the carpals?
Of the eight carpals, which are involved in the articulation with the forearm?
scaphoid, lunate, & triquetrum
What articulations occur between the carpals?
What joints lie between the carpals and metacarpals?
What joints lie between the metacarpals and the phalanges?
What joints lie between the proximal phalanx and the middle phalanx of digits 2-5?
proximal interphalangeal joints
What joints lie between the middle phalanx and the distal phalanx of digits 2-5?
distal interphalangeal joints
What joint lies between the phalanges of the first digit?
What ligaments originates along the acetabulum and attaches to the fovea capitis femoris?
What two articulations make up the knee?
tibiofemoral joint & patellofemoral joint
What structure joins the quadricep femoris to the patella?
What structure joins the patella to the tibia?
What ligament connects the femur and the fibula and prevents hyperadduction?
lateral collateral ligament
What ligament connects the femur and the tibia and prevents hyperabduction?
medial collateral ligament
What two C-shaped pads of fibrocartilage lie between the femoral and tibia condyles?
medial & lateral meniscus
Which of the menisci within the knee is attached to a collateral ligament?
What two ligaments within the knee cross to form an "X" or crucifix?
anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments
Which of the cruciate ligaments tightens on extension to prevent hyperextension?
anterior cruciate ligament
Which of the cruciate ligaments tightens on flexion to prevent hyperflexion?
posterior cruciate ligament
What three bones are involved in the ankle joint?
tibia, fibula, & talus
What ligament binds the tibia to the foot on the medial side and prevents overeversion?
What ligament binds the fibula to the foot and prevents overinversion?
What group of joints within the foot allows inversion and eversion?
What joints within the foot lie between the tarsals and metatarsals?
What joints within the foot lie between the metatarsals and phalanges?
What joints within the foot lie between the phalanges?