Anatomy Chapter 16

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LaizyDaizy79
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66080
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Anatomy Chapter 16
Updated:
2011-04-11 22:49:37
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Human Anatomy
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Articulations
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  1. What is a synonym for articulation?
    joint
  2. What is the study of joints?
    arthrology
  3. How do mobility and stability relate to one another?
    inversely - as one increases, the other decreases
  4. Based on structure, what are the three types of joints?
    fibrous, cartilaginous, & synovial joint
  5. Based on function, what are three types of joints?
    synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, & diarthrosis
  6. Where do gomphoses occur in the human body?
    articulations of teeth
  7. How are gomphoses classified functionally?
    synarthrosis
  8. What is a suture?
    immobile fibrous joints found between certain bones of the skull?
  9. Where do sutures occur in the human body?
    skull
  10. How are sutures classified functionally?
    synostoses
  11. What is a syndesmosis?
    fibrous joints with a fastening
  12. How are syndesmoses classified functionally?
    amphiarthroses
  13. What broad ligamentous sheet connect bones in a syndesmosis?
    interosseous membrane
  14. Where do syndesmoses occur in the human body>
    • radius & ulna
    • tibia & fibula
  15. List the three types of fibrous joints.
    gomphosis, sutures, & syndesmoses
  16. Cartilaginous joints are obviously linked by cartilage. Do they have a joint cavity?
    no
  17. What type of cartilage joins bones in synchondroses?
    hyaline cartilage
  18. What is the example of synchondroses within growing bones?
    epiphyseal plates
  19. What are the two examples within the rib cage?
    first sternocostal joint & costochondral joints
  20. What is the functional classification of synchondroses?
    synarthroses
  21. What type of cartilage holds bones together in symphysis?
    fibrocartilage
  22. What is the functional classification of symphyses?
    amphiarthroses
  23. List two examples of symphyses.
    pubic symphysis & intervertebral joints
  24. List the two types of cartilaginous joints.
    synchondroses & symphyses
  25. Do synovial joints have a joint cavity?
    yes
  26. What is the functional classification of synovial joitns?
    diarthroses
  27. What structure surrounds a synovial joint and forms its cavity?
    articular capsule
  28. What is the outer layer of a joint capsule?
    fibrous layer
  29. What is the inner layer of a joint capsule?
    synovial membrane
  30. What liquid fills the joint cavity of a synovial joint?
    synovial fluid
  31. What structure forms the liquid that fills the joint cavity of a synovial joint?
    synovial membranes
  32. What are the three functions of synovial fluid?
    lubrication, nourishment, & shock absorber
  33. What type of cartilage covers the articulating surfaces of bones in a synovial joint?
    hyaline cartilage
  34. What is the thing layer of hyaline cartilage on the articulating surfaces of bones called?
    articular cartilage
  35. What are bands of dense irregular connective tissue that join bone to bone?
    ligaments
  36. What is a fibrous, saclike structure that is lined with synovial membrane, contains synovial fluid, and reduce friction during movement?
    bursa
  37. What are elongated bursae wrapped around tendons?
    tendon sheaths
  38. Based on movement with repect three intersecting perpendivular planes, what type of synovial joint moves in one plane?
    uniaxial
  39. Based on movement with respect three intersecting perpendicular planes, what type of synovial joint moves in two planes?
    biaxial
  40. Based on movement with respect three intersecting perpendicular planes, what type of synovial joint mvoes in mupltiple planes?
    multiaxial or triaxial
  41. Based on function, what type of joints are all synovial joints?
    diarthroses
  42. What type of synovial joint is uniaxial and is the simplest?
    planar (gliding) joint
  43. What type of synovial joint is uniaxial and composed of one convex surface fitting into a concave surface and allows movement in only one plane?
    hinge joint
  44. What type of synovial joint is uniaxial and is formed by a rounded surface fitting into a ring formed by a ligament and another bone? This type of joint allows the rotation of one bone around its long axis in relation to the second bone.
    pivot bone
  45. What type of synovial joint is biaxial with an oval, convex surface on one bone articualting with an oval, concave surface on a second bone?
    condyloid joint
  46. What type of synovial joint is formed by two opposing articular surfaces that are convex in one direction and concave in another and that permit movements in all directions except axial rotation?
    saddle joint
  47. What type of synovial joint is multiaxial and is formed by a spherical articulating head of one bone fitting into a rounded, cuplike socket on a second bone?
    ball-&-socket joint
  48. What type of movement of a synovial joint involves a simple movement in which two opposing surfaces slide slightly back-and-forth or side-to-side with respect to one another? In this type the angle between the bones does not change and only limited movement is possible in any direction.
    gliding motion
  49. What type of mvoement involves an increase or decrease in a joint angle?
    angular motion
  50. What type of movement is the lateral carrying away of a body part from the midline?
    abduction
  51. What type of movement is the medial movement of a body part toward the midline?
    adduction
  52. What type of movement brings about a decrease in the angle of a joint?
    flexion
  53. What type of movement brings about an increase in the angle of a joint?
    extension
  54. What type of movement increases the angle of a joint beyond 180 degrees (beyond the anatomical position)?
    hyperextension
  55. What type of movement occurs when the trunk of the body moves in a coronal plane laterally?
    lateral flexion
  56. What type of movement is a sequence of movements in which the proximal end of an appendage remains relatively stationary while the distal end makes a circular motion?
    circumduction
  57. What type of movement is a pivoting motion in which a bone turns on its own long axis?
    rotation
  58. What type of movement is a pivoting motion in which a bone turns on its own long axis so that the anterior surface moves laterally?
    lateral rotation
  59. What type of movement is a pivoting motion in which a bone turns on its own long axis so that the anterior surface moves medially?
    medial rotation
  60. What type of movement is the inferior movement of a body part?
    depression
  61. What type of movement is the superior movement of a body part?
    elevation
  62. What type of movement occurs when the dorsum of the foot or hand moves so that the angle between it and the limb decreases?
    dorsiflexion
  63. What type of movement occurs when the ankle joint moves to point the toes inferiorly?
    plantar flexion
  64. What type of movement occurs when the wrist moves to decrease the space between the palm and forearm?
    palmar flexion
  65. What type of movement occurs when the intertarsal joints are moved to face the sole of the foot laterally?
    eversion
  66. What type of movement occurs when the intertarsal joitns are moved to turn the sole of the foot medially?
    inversion
  67. What type of mvoement occurs so that the palsm of the hand is directed posteriorly or inferiorly?
    pronation
  68. What type of movement occurs so that the palm of the hand is directed anteriorly and superiorly?
    supination
  69. What type of movement occurs when a body part moves anteriorly in a horizontal plane?
    protraction
  70. What type of movement occurs when a body part moves posteriorly in a horizontal plane?
    retraction
  71. What movement occurs when the thumb moves toward the palmar tips of the fingers as it crosses the palm of the head?
    opposition
  72. What movement occurs when the thumb moves away from the palmar tips of the fingers?
    reposition
  73. What joint occurs between the temporal bone and the mandible?
    temporomandibular joint
  74. What structures separate the bodies of the vertebrae from C2-C3 to L5-S1?
    intervertebral discs
  75. What are the two components of an intervertebral disc?
    anulus fibrosis & nucleus pulposes
  76. Synovial joints occur between what aprts of vertebrae from C2 to L5-S1?
    superior & inferior articular processes
  77. What saddle joint is the only articulation between the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton?
    sternoclavicular joint
  78. What joint occurs between the scapula and the clavicle?
    acromioclavicular joint
  79. What is the most unstable joint of the body?
    glenohumeral joint
  80. Which of the two bones of the forearm is involved in the articulation with the carpals?
    radius
  81. Of the eight carpals, which are involved in the articulation with the forearm?
    scaphoid, lunate, & triquetrum
  82. What articulations occur between the carpals?
    intercarpal articulations
  83. What joints lie between the carpals and metacarpals?
    carpometacarpal joints
  84. What joints lie between the metacarpals and the phalanges?
    metacarpalphalngeal joints
  85. What joints lie between the proximal phalanx and the middle phalanx of digits 2-5?
    proximal interphalangeal joints
  86. What joints lie between the middle phalanx and the distal phalanx of digits 2-5?
    distal interphalangeal joints
  87. What joint lies between the phalanges of the first digit?
    interphalangeal joint
  88. What ligaments originates along the acetabulum and attaches to the fovea capitis femoris?
    ligamentum teres
  89. What two articulations make up the knee?
    tibiofemoral joint & patellofemoral joint
  90. What structure joins the quadricep femoris to the patella?
    quadriceps tendon
  91. What structure joins the patella to the tibia?
    patellar ligament
  92. What ligament connects the femur and the fibula and prevents hyperadduction?
    lateral collateral ligament
  93. What ligament connects the femur and the tibia and prevents hyperabduction?
    medial collateral ligament
  94. What two C-shaped pads of fibrocartilage lie between the femoral and tibia condyles?
    medial & lateral meniscus
  95. Which of the menisci within the knee is attached to a collateral ligament?
    medial meniscus
  96. What two ligaments within the knee cross to form an "X" or crucifix?
    anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments
  97. Which of the cruciate ligaments tightens on extension to prevent hyperextension?
    anterior cruciate ligament
  98. Which of the cruciate ligaments tightens on flexion to prevent hyperflexion?
    posterior cruciate ligament
  99. What three bones are involved in the ankle joint?
    tibia, fibula, & talus
  100. What ligament binds the tibia to the foot on the medial side and prevents overeversion?
    deltoid ligament
  101. What ligament binds the fibula to the foot and prevents overinversion?
    lateral ligament
  102. What group of joints within the foot allows inversion and eversion?
    intertarsal joints
  103. What joints within the foot lie between the tarsals and metatarsals?
    tarsometatarsal joints
  104. What joints within the foot lie between the metatarsals and phalanges?
    metatarsophalngeal joints
  105. What joints within the foot lie between the phalanges?
    interphalangeal joints

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