World Civ - Scientific Revolution and the enlightenment review Sheet

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World Civ - Scientific Revolution and the enlightenment review Sheet
2011-05-25 21:13:44
scientific revolution

World Civ - Scientific Revolution and the enlightenment review Sheet
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  1. Descartes
    Analytical geometry.

    Everything should be doubted until proven by reason.
  2. Hooke
    Cells in living matter.
  3. Copernicus
    Heliocentric theory of the universe.
  4. Leeuwenhoek
  5. Torricelli
  6. Boyle
    Founder of modern chemistry.
  7. Priestley
    Discovered element that is later named oxygen.
  8. Lavoisier
    Named oxygen.

    Discovered the law of conservation of matter.
  9. Newton
    Laws of motion and gravity.
  10. Harvey
    circulation of blood
  11. Galileo
    Disproved geocentric theory.
  12. Janssen
    Invented microscope.
  13. Vesalius
    Drawings of human anatomy.
  14. Bacon
    Urged scientists to use empiricism.
  15. Fahrenheit
    1st thermometer to freeze at 32 degrees.
  16. Kepler
    Mathematical laws govern planetary motion.
  17. Celsius
    Thermometer with 0 as freezing.
  18. Beccaria
    Laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes. Criticized common abuses of justice.
  19. Mary Wollstonecraft
    Argued that women like men need education to become virtuous and useful. Urged women to enter the male- dominated fields of medicine and politics.
  20. Diderot
    Philosophe. Created Encyclopedia.
  21. Bach
    Wrote dramatic organ and choral music.
  22. Handel
    Wrote dramatic organ and choral music.
  23. Haydn
    Wrote lighter, more elegant style of music. Rank among the greatest figures of the classical period in music.
  24. Mozart
    Wrote lighter, more elegant style of music. Rank among the greatest figures of the classical period in music
  25. Beethoven
    Wrote lighter, more elegant style of music. Rank among the greatest figures of the classical period in music.
  26. Jacques Louis David
    A French painter and leading figure in Neoclassicism, which was the classical period in art.
  27. Fredrick the Great
    An enlightened despot. He was King of Prussia and was committed to reforming Prussia. He granted religious freedoms, improved education, reformed the justice system and abolished the use of torture. His goal was to serve and strengthen his country.
  28. Joseph II
    Introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press. Supported freedom of worship. Abolished serfdom.
  29. Catherine the Great
    Ruled Russia and ruled with absolute authority, but also sought to reform Russia. Formed a commission to review Russia’s laws. Had lofty goals but not many were accomplished. Put in place limited reforms. Uprising of serfs caused her to keep serfdom versus favoring an end to serfdom and she had previously.
  30. Leviathan
    sea monster
  31. Social contract
    an agreement between people that define their rights, creating an organized society or government.
  32. Philosophe
  33. Salon
    Social gatherings that philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and other great intellects met to discuss ideas at.
  34. Baroque
    a type of style characterized by a grand, ornate design.
  35. Neoclassical
    simple, elegant style based on ideas and themes from ancient Greece and Rome, characterized the arts.
  36. Enlightened despots
    monarchs who were inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects.
  37. Hobbes
    • All humans are naturally selfish and wicked.
    • We need a government to keep order.
    • His idea of a social contract is people hand over their rights to a strong ruler and the ruler gains total power to keep citizens under control.
    • Absolute monarchies were the best government and they should have the power of leviathan.
    • People can’t overthrow government even if bad.
  38. Locke
    • People can learn from experience and improve themselves.
    • Humans have the natural ability to govern their own affairs and look after the welfare of society.
    • No absolute monarchy
    • No government
    • People are free and equal
    • 3 natural rights – life, liberty and property.
    • Government protects natural rights or citizens can overthrow
  39. Montesquieu
    • 1) Checks and balances
    • 2) Split government into three branches
    • 3) Separation of powers – keep an individual or group from gaining total control of government.
    • 4) Britain = best government – separation of powers
  40. Voltaire
    • 1) Fought for tolerance, reason, religious freedom, freedom of press and free speech.
    • 2) Ridiculed the clergy, aristocracy, and government.
    • 2) “I will not agree with a word you say, but I will fight to death for your right to say it”.
  41. Rousseau
    • 1) Civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness
    • 2) Good government = direct democracy, formed by people.
    • 3) Individual freedom
    • 4) All people are equal – no titles of nobility.
    • 5) Social contract – agreement among free individuals to create a society and government.
  42. The causes of the Scientific Revolution
    • 1) During the Renaissance, European explorers traveled to Africa, Asia, and the Americas. They found discoveries that opened Europeans to the possibility that there were new truths to be found.
    • 2) The invention of the printing press during this period helped spread challenging ideas – both old and new – more widely among Europe’s thinkers.
    • 3) The age of European exploration also fueled a great deal of scientific research, especially in astronomy and mathematics.
  43. Understand the scientific method, what it was and how it changed science.
    The scientific method is a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. It changed science so that it was no longer just what you see; people investigated and made experiments and discovered ideas that would not have been thought of otherwise.
  44. The difference between the geocentric theory and the heliocentric theory.
    In the geocentric theory, earth is the center of the universe, and everything revolves around the earth. In the heliocentric theory, it was concluded that the stars, earth, and other planets revolved around the sun.
  45. The difference between the medieval view of the world and the new way of thinking.

    During the Middle Ages, most scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe. The Medieval View was that the moon, the sun, and the planets all moved in perfectly circular paths around the earth. The New Way of thinking viewed the planetary orbit as all the planets, the earth, and the moon moved around the sun.

  46. The conflict that arose between the Church and science.
    Church leaders were frightened by new scientific theories, such as those of Galileo, because they went against church teaching and authority. If people believed the church could be wrong about this, they could question other church teachings as well. Galileo was brought before the church to stand trial after he wrote a book supporting the Copernican theory. He agreed with the church that the ideas of Copernicus were false, despite the fact that he did not believe this.
  47. The 5 core beliefs of the French philosophes.

    The five core beliefs of French philosophes are: reason, nature, happiness, progress and liberty.

  48. Impact of the Enlightenment thinkers on the government in the U.S.

    The Enlightenment’s ideas were fundamental to U.S. Declaration of Independence. The separation of powers in new constitutions was used in the United States. Guaranteed in U.S. Bill of Rights freedom of thought, religion and expression, and the abolishment of torture. Women’s rights groups were formed in America.

  49. Philosophes views on women's rights.
    Philosophes tended to keep a traditional view toward women. Rousseau developed many progressive ideas about education. However, he believed that a girl’s education should mainly teach her how to be a helpful wife and mother. Other male social critics scolded women for reading novels because they thought it encouraged idleness and wickednesss.
  50. Women's contributions to the Enlightenment.
    Women writers tried to improve the status of women. Mary Wollstonecraft argued that women need education to become virtuous and useful. She also urged women to enter the male-dominated fields of medicine and politics. Wealthy women helped spread Enlightenment ideas through social gatherings called salons.
  51. Three long term effects of the Enlightenment.
    Three long term effects of the Enlightenment are: belief in progress, a secular outlook, and the importance of the individual.
  52. The characteristics of Enlightenment art, architecture, and music.
    The characteristics of Enlightenment art and architecture was a simple and elegant style that borrowed ideas from classical Greece and Rome. The characteristics of Enlightenment music a lighter and more elegant style of music.