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the scientific study of the mind, mental processes, mental structures
why do we study cognitive psychology?
- intellectual curiosity
- implications for other fields
- pracitcal applications
the extent to which a controled lab experiment can reflect what happens in real life.
sensation and perception
pick up information and interpreting the information.
- everything sensed is perceived as a more meaningful/whole pattern.
- taking what's in the sensory store and interpreting it by matching it to something that's already known.
consciously focusing on some information.
- nonsense syllables
- interested in the formation of new associations/memories
- time to learn at stage 1-time to learn at stage 2
- takes less time to learn something you've already learned even if forgotten
models of memory
wax tablet, file cabinet, computer, ring a bell, food for thought-Plato cow's digestion, exremental forgetting
- primary memory
- secondary memory
whatever is n your consciousness at this moment.
long term memory, relatively permanent
information processing model/modal model
- Atkinson and Shiffrin Model
- sensory goes to STM goes to LTM
- LTM can be recalled into STM
how information flows through the memory system
transfer of info from STM to LTM.
being able to being a memory back up.
tip of the tongue
when you can't think of something you know its b/c you're only retrieving part of the memory.
serial position effects
first and last items of a list are rehearsed and remembered better than the middle words in the list.
- inability to store new information
- H.M. in 1953 suffering from seizures, doctors removed his hippocampus
- still had a recency effect but no priming effect
blocking out memories before a trauma.
people completely block out their whole past and don't know themselves.
raw info our senses pick up (light waves, sound).
raw energy converted into neural signals sent to the brain (electrical activity).
sensory stores - Iconic/Echoic storage
holds on to sensory impressions.
characteristics of sensory memory
- veridical form
- relatively large
- brief period of time
real/accurate memory that reflects the ting that was seen/heard.
Sperling's memory work
- demonstrates the capacity and duration of storage
- by flashing lines of letters able to determine that all the letter made it into sensory memory and that it lasted about 250 ms or less
- erasing the info off sensory memory
- presented letter and later a visual cue to recall the letters
- when putting a line under where the letters were vs a circle people could recall better with the lines
- circle erased the letter and took its place
stem from differences in ability to assign meaning to things
three-eared man experiments
- wearing headphones - 3 numbers delivered to right ear, left ear, and both ears
- later given a cue to recall from one ear and people were able to do it which indicated that all the info had entered echoic memory
- the last items in a list are recalled better if list is presented in audio fashion.
- reading + saying > just reading
when read a list the last word was erased from memory when another word was read as a cue vs a buzzer
when we see an object, we don't see its parts but the whole
theories of object recognition
- template matching theory
- feature analysis
template matching theory
type of mental record, internal pattern stored in LTM
- intermediate step b/t seeing somethign and identifying it.
- object represented by sets of simple features
bottom up processing
- processing driven by the stimulus pattern
- deciphering whole object from its parts first
top down processing
- expecting to see something can make you perceive the whole object first without using its parts to decipher it at the beginning
- (proof reading papers)
word superiority effect
- letters in the context of words are easier to detect than non words
- will recognize a letter is in an actual word faster than if its in a set of letters thats not a word
- harder to recognize professors outside of class when you only see them in one context.
phoneme restoration effect
- recorded sentence is played and in it one phoneme is replaced with white noise
- allows us to reconstruct sounds that are overshadowed by other sounds
dichotic listening task
- attempt to simulate a crowded room
- wearing headphones with 2 things playing 1 in each ear, told to listen to one ignore the other, later asked to recall what was played in one ear
- usu. could recall a little info from the listened ear and none from the ignored
broadbent's filter theory
- early selection filter model
- 2 paths of attention, one paths closes off so the other can have more focus
- flawed because when fully engaged you can hear your name and switch to it something must be getting through
early selection filer models
assum attention operates before meaning is given to info
gary and wedderburn
cocktail party effect
cocktail party effect
being in a room full of people or a room of distractions, hearing your name will distract you from the current focus
Triesman's attentuation model
- modification of broadbent's theory
- attention isnt a gate that can be completely closed off but more like volume control
- still early selection
late selection filter models
attention operates after sensory memory picks up info so everything is assigned meaning as it enters sensory memory.
subliminal semantic priming
if stimulus word that precedes target word is semantically related, reaction time is faster than for an unrelated word (doctor-nurse)
lexical decision task
subject given a string of letters and the subject just has to say as quicly as possible if its a word or not.
- dichotic memory exercise, subject is to shadow one ear and ignore the ear with the homophones in it (hair/hare, pane/pain)
- test - recognition or spelling
- recognition is almost none of the words
- spelling about half the time they will spell the word that was read to their ignored ear
multimode model of attention
- could attention work both early and late? yes
- selective attention is flexible - harder with 2 voices that sound similar, easier if 2 voices are different
can only process a limited amount of info at a time
Neisser's selective attention test
when asked to focus on guys in white and ignore guys in black, its hard to perceive the woman walking across with umbrella but it was still seen.
Visual neglect (left side neglect)
- brainsidorder where there is an inability to pay attention to anything on your left side
- usu. damage to right side of brain
secondary task technique
when asked to perform an activity and told its important while doing another task at the same time, the harder the primary task the more difficult it should be to perform the secondary task (cell phones and driving).
- demonstrates an automatic process
- reading color names written in a color thats different
- occur without intention
- not available for conscious monitoring - not aware of the process
- consume few attentional resources.
disadvantages of automatic processing
when confronted with change or a new situation, hard to adapt to the new way of doing things (driving in another country)
- anything below your threshold of awareness
- something presented so quickly or quietly it can't be heard or seen.
- can be exposed to a word and thenthe word is masked so it seems like it never appeared
- but when doing word pairs the word nurse prompts the masked word doctor
subliminal mere exposure
more often you see something the more you like it
subliminal stroop effect
- given a color word, see a mask, given a color patch
- asked to name the color
- takes people longer to name the patch than it would if they hadnt been exposed to the color word
- results in damage in the visual cortex which causes blindness
- brain blindness, eyes are fine
- when asked to point to an object in space they can usually do it
memory during anesthesia
half of the people in an experiment were asked to pull their ear lobe under anesthesia, most of them did as compared to the control group
can subliminal info affect your behavior?
yes but only for small/easy decision and only for a temporary amt of time
commercial might be effective but somethin being flashed subliminally on the screen will not make you buy it
backmasking in music
can music convince you to do things? NO
- above the threshold of consciousness
- aware of what you're being exposed to