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When the Muslims invaded and took spain in the War of Reconquest, what rulers successfully put the territory together?
Ferdinand and Isabella
Charles V became king at 16. He brought some of his friends into Spain and acted all chill. The people there got mad because they thought he was not a dedicated ruler. Then what happened?
There was a rebellion. Charles V put it down and learned his lesson.
Who became the Holy Roman Emperor? What land did he get?
- Charles V
- He acquired Spain, Netherlands, Austria, Italy, Sicily, America, Philippines
What problems did Charles V face?
- The Turks captured Constantinople and protected the Eastern part of their empire
- There were Muslim pirate attacks in the Mediterranean
- Reformation nations fought eachother
- Charles and Francis kept warring
Who won the War of Roses?
Henry Tudor VII
What good things did Henry Tudor VII do? Who was his son?
- He Helped trade and industry by building ships and offering business incentives.
- He sent people to explore America (they landed in Cabot)
- He was having problems with the nobles so he set up a Court of Star Chamber
- His son was Henry VIII
Henry the VIII wrote against __________ and became a defender of the faith. All of his children died except for _________. This was bad because he wanted a ________ to keep nobles in check. So, to get a divorce from his wife, he _______________.
- Martin Luther
- Mary Tudor
- Separated from the Catholic church and started the Anglican church
When Henry VIII's only son, Edward died, Mary Tudor died too (after trying to restore Catholicism). Who became the ruler?
In the short amount of time that Edward VI ruled, what did he do?
He made the Anglican church more Protestant
Elizabeth was good in dealing with _________ and restoring life to the _________. She had constant problems with ________. She created ________ for the poor.
Who was the first Bourbon ruler of France?
Henry IV practiced what religion? When he was denied access to Paris because of this religion, what did he do?
- He laid siege to the city, but the Spanish helped French pull through. Henry then became Catholic and king.
The Edict of Nantes did what?
It gave the Huguenots religious freedom as well as freedom to have their own armies. Henry IV did this in return for allowing the Jesuits to return.
What is Parlement?
A group of nobles in an area who approve laws.
Louis XII wasn't much of a king. Who ruled for him?
How did Cardinal Richelieu deal with:
The Hapsberg Family:
Nobles: He threatened to destroy their castles with the new artillery. He outlawed dueling so that when they dueled one died and the other got arrested.
Huguenots: He sieged a Huguenot center (La Rochelle) and took away their armies (not the religious freedom)
Hapsbergs: He involved himself in the 30 years war against the Hapsbergs and made France the number one nation.
Who did Richelieu intend to replace him?
Mazarin (his assistant)
Louis XIII left behind a 5 year old son named _______.
Before he could rule, _____________ took his place.
Louis XIV took all of the power without any help from ministers. What was the Fronde?
It was a humiliating rebellion of nobles.
Who revoked the Edict of Nantes?
What happened when the Edict of Nantes was revoked?
The artisans and craftspeople in the middle class left France and the economy failed.
What type of army did Louis XIV create? Where did he fight against the Spanish?
- A national army (people make the army their career)]
- He fought them in the Netherlands.
What was the outcome of the War of Spanish Succession?
- Spain and France could never unite as a country
- Philip V is the king of Spain
How did Louis XIV keep his nobles in check.
He kept them entertained in his Palace of Versailles and cut off from their home bases.
What legacy did Louis XIV leave.
He accomplished nothing of huge noteworthiness, but through his lavishness he drained the treasury.
There was an eleven year period in which _________ dissolved __________.
Charles I enstated what two taxes in order to get money? Why did he have to enstate these?
- Ship tax and forced loan
- Parliament wouldn't grant him money
Describe the oddities of Charles I's trial.
It was public because his accusers thought he would be a terrible public speaker. He was actually a really good one, and the crowd chanted "save the king" (or something like that). At his murder, everyone was silent and solemn, and even the executioner was nice to him. They all gasped when he was beheaded.
What is a regicide?
One of the people who signed Charles I's death warrant.
What was unique about Oliver Cromwell's army?
It was a professional army of common people who were specifically trained to fight.
What was Cromwell's policy on religion?
He granted religious freedom to all. Parliament said, "meeh, no"
What was the Instrument of Government?
The 1st written English constitution.
What was the rule of major generals? Under whom did it happen?
Oliver Cromwell let 12 generals rule certain parts of England. There was a lot of oppresion going on, people were unhappy, and it made Cromwell unpopular.
Who took over after Cromwell?
- His son
- A general monk who went to Parliament for help
- Parliament got Charles II power, and he was indebted to them fo' eva
What did Parliament pass under Charles II.
Guarantees of freedom and habeas corpus (prisoner is guaranteed a judge)
Why did James II dissolve Parliament?
They protested the election of Catholic officials. His daughter and son-in-law were then asked to take his place.
William and Mary did what with parliament?
They realized that Parliament was a counterpart and they worked with it. They had a constitutional monarchy with a bill of rights.
In what event was James II overthrown?
The Glorious Revolution (no actual fighting)
Philip II defended what religion?
How did Philip II accumulate such great wealth?
He captured many other empires such as Portugal.