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What was the Catholic Church benifitting from?
What did Pope Leo X raise?
Money authorizing sales of indulgence
What is indulgence?
- anything not Christian
Who was Martin Luther?
German monk who challenged the pope on indulgences
Salvation can be done on what?
What did John Calvin believe in?
- Salvation is God’s gift
- Christian congregations should be
- Stress simplicity in life and worship
What is protestation reformation?
- dis-liked Italian-dominated Catholic
- Peasants and urban workers
What was traditional thinking?
- Natural events caused by supernatural
- intellectuals derived understanding from Greek and Romans
Does the Church aprove of this theory?
No. But print beats religion.
- Laws of Gravity.
- Religious, but scientist.
- Good time period.
- of this period
What is Enlightenment?
- Intellectual movement that will influence
- social behavior and institutions that will be governed (controlled) by
- scientific laws. Printing press helped spread it
Joint– Stock companies?
- Merchants and Government forming a
- partnership to become more profitable
- Emergence of stock exchange will occur
Impact of joint - stock?
- Trade and international affairs
- Anglo-Dutch wars of the 17th century
- The Navy battles w/ England
How was land important?
- Bourgeois class will gain more land.
- Land is power, so people will marry into noble familes to gain power.
High consumption of wood
- Cooking, ships, home, industry, heating,
- Navy, etc
How was women's status gained?
Through their hudsband.
When did upper class marry?
Late, because of education.
What is the bourgieos class?
- Emphasized schools
- Choose a profession or trade
Who is Charles of Burgundy?
- The Ottomans at Vienna in 1529
- But unable to unify all his territories
- Also,known as Charles I of Spain
Germany rebels against Charles, why?
Catholic and spoke Italian
How was the power split after this?
- Spain will go to Philip (his son)
- Weakened Holy Roman Empire will go to
- Ferdinand (his brother)
Who are friends?
England, France, and Spain
What happened when England became a power?
- taxes directly
- a central bank
- used naval power to break down the Dutch
How were the French's taxes?
What is the Columbian exchange?
The exchange of animals, peoples, and plants from new and Old World
What is the impact of the new people?
- and African slaves devastated indigenous populations
- to disease, settlements, and technology
- weakens “American resistance”
What disease spread to the new world?
Syphilis and maybe yellow fever?
•List two positives and negatives of the exchange
Lots of disease was spread, but so was culture and other plants, animals and such.
What is the council of indies in Spain?
- THINK CANADA, AND THE MOTHER COUNTRY.
- If a little town wanted to do something, they had to ask their leader, if their leader couldn't give an answer, they'd have to go to the Council of Indies, if the Council of Indies couldn't get an answer, they'd have to go all the way back to Spain.
What was wrong with the Council of Indies?
It took way too long to get problems fixed if it had to go all the way to Spain.
What was the govermnemt structure?
- Highly developed – Must be from Spain =
- at first Bureaucracies
- No political experimentation
- Slow local economies
What was the church like?
- Transferring the European language
- Culture will spread
- Christian beliefs – convert
- Dual belief system would occur
How did the Church have problems?
- Blending the relegion of the new people, and the olds...didn't go over so well.
- New people will win tho.
- silver mines in Peru/Mexico
- Sugar plantations in Brazil
What will dependency of Spain's economics cause?
deforestation and mercury poisoning
Where were Amerindians forced to work?
Textiles, food supply, mining
Upper Social class?
- Great Noble families did not come to Americas
- Lesser nobles
- -White born in Americas
- -Mixed Ancestry
- -Europeans and African descent
- -Mixed offspring from Creole or European
What are Castas?
- Spanish America called are mixed relations
- Higher status then indigenous people
- Followed Catholicism
- Dress/Diet/actions were “European”
How were the Ranchers?
large farms, wage earning, controlled mining areas
Why did Bosman maintain that the Dutch slave ships were so much cleaner than those
of other European states?
So they could sell their slaves for more moniez.
English and French settlements?
- and Roanoke Island (pre 1600)
Why did they fail?
- poor leadership
Why were slaves branded?
To show ownership and who were the slaves.
Royal African Company (RAC)?
- association of English investors
- received a charter from English monarchy
- Rights to trade Atlantic coast of Africa
What was the new important cash crop?
Who was the worlds biggest sugar producer in 1600?
Brazil, and the Dutch invested in them.
Who did the Dutch fight for Independence?
Who was cheeper...Indentured Servants or slaves?
Why did Sugar prices rise?
To buy more slaves.
What does England discover?
What does French take half of?
What were tools for sugar?
- –Spade for planting
- –Hoes for weeds
- –Machete to harvest
- –Crushing and processing equipment
Why were plantations damaging to the enviorment?
- –Soil exhaustion
Why were the animals dying?
–Crowded out indigenous species
Who were the Great Gang?
- –Strongest slaves
- –Heaviest work
What the Grass Gang?
- –Children with adult supervision
- –Weeding, and collecting grass
What did the women do?
- –Field workers
- –Nursing mothers took babies to the field
–Grands Blancs/“Great Whites”
•Dominatedthe economy and society
–Petits Blancs/“Little Whites”
•Some even owned their own slaves
What was the social class?
- Grande Blancs
- Petits Blancs
- Free blacks