Biology Chapter 6

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Biology Chapter 6
2011-02-13 18:59:57
Biology Vocabulary

Honors Biology
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  1. Somatic Cell
    also known as body cells, make up most of your body tissues and organs
  2. Gametes
    are sex cells - ova, or eggs, in the female, snd spermatozoa, or sperm cells, in males
  3. Homologous Chromosomes
    are two chromosomes - one ingerited from the mother, one from the father - that have the same length and general appearance
  4. Autosome
    Cromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism
  5. Sex Chromosomes
    Control the development of sexual charactaristics that most sexually reproducing that most sexually reproducing species have
  6. Sexual Reproduction
    involves the fusion of two gametes that results in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both
  7. Fertilization
    Is the actual fusion of an egg an a sperm cell. When this occurs, the nuclei of the egg and sperm cell fuse to form one nucleus, that must have the correct number of chromosomes for a healthy organism to develop.
  8. Diploid
    Cells have two copies of each chromosome: one copy from the mother and one from the father. Can be represented by 2n.
  9. Haploid
    Cells have only one copy of each chromosome. This is represented by n.
  10. Meiosis
    is a form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells. This is essential for sexual reproduction.
  11. Gametogenesis
    is the production of gametes. Includes both meiosis and other changes that produce a mature cell.
  12. Sperm
    the male gamete, is so much smaller than the egg. It swims to the egg to fertilize it. Has a tail named flagellum.
  13. Egg Cell
    The female gamete. The formation of this is not over until the ___ is fertilized many years later. The process includes periods of active development and long periods of inacticity.
  14. Polar Bodies
    Cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down. Is produced by meiosis I and does not undergo meiosis II.