HIST 105 Ch. 1-5

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HIST 105 Ch. 1-5
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2011-02-13 21:05:25
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History 105 Ch. 1-5
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  1. Agricultural Revolution
    The gradual shift from hunting and gathering to cultivating basic food crops that occurred worldwide from 7,000 to 9,000 years ago
  2. Columbian Exchange
    the exchange of plants, animals, culture, and diseases between Europe and the Americas from first contact throughout the era of exploration
  3. Renaissance
    A cultural awakening that began in Italy and spread throughout Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries
  4. Conquistadores
    16th century Spanish adventurers, often of noble birth, who subdued the Native Americans and create the Spanish empire in the new world.
  5. Treaty of Tordesillas
    Treaty negotiated by the pope in 1494 to resolve competing land claims of Spain and Portugal in the New World. It divided the world along a north-south line in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, granting all land west of the line to Spain, and all land east of the line to Portugal
  6. Ecomienda
    An exploitative labor system designed by Spanish rulers to reward conquistadores in the New World by granting them local villages and control over native labor
  7. Protestant Reformation
    16th century religious movement to reform and challenge the spiritual authority of the Roman Catholic Church, associated with figures such as Martin Luther and John Calvin
  8. Glorious Revolution
    Replacement of James II by William and Mary as English Monarchs in 1688, marking the beginning of constitutional monarchy in Britain. American colonists celebrated this moment as a victory for the rule of law over depotism
  9. Joint-Stock Company
    Business enterprise that enabled investors to pool money for commercial trading activity and funding for sustaining colonies
  10. House of Burgesses
    An elective representative assembly in colonial Virginia. It was the first example of representative government in the English colonies
  11. Headright
    System of land distribution through which settlers were granted a 50-acre plot of land from the colonial government for each servant of dependent they transported to the New World. The system encouraged the recruitment of a large servile labor force
  12. Indentured Servants
    Individuals who contracted to serve a master for a set number of years in exchange for the cost of boat transport to America. Indentured servitude was the dominant form of labor in the Chesapeake colonies before slavery
  13. Mayflower Compact
    Agreement among the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower in 1620 to create a civil government at Plymouth Colony
  14. Puritan
    Member of a reformed Protestant sect in Europe and America that insisted on removing all vestiges of Catholicism from popular religious practice
  15. Antinomianism
    Religious belief rejecting traditional moral law as unnecessary for Christians who possess saving grace and affirming that an individual could experience divine revelation and salvation without the assistance of formally trained clergy
  16. Quakers
    Members of a radical religious group, formally known as the Society of Friends, that rejected formal theology and emphasized a person's "Inner Light," a spiritual guide to righteousness
  17. Mercantilism
    An economic theory that shaped imperial policy throughout the colonial period, mercantilism was built on the assumption that the world's wealth was a fixed supply. To increase its wealth, a nation needed to export more goods than it imported. Favorable trade and protective economic policies, as well as new colonial possessions rich in raw materials, were important in achieving this balance
  18. Enumerated Goods
    Certain essential raw materials produced in the North American colonies, such as tobacco, sugar, and rice, specified in the Navigation Acts, which stipulated that these goods could only be shipped to England or its colonies
  19. Navigation Acts
    A series of commercial restrictions passed by Parliament intended to regulate colonial commerce in such a way as to favor England's accumulation of wealth
  20. Bacon's Rebellion
    An armed rebellion in Virginia (1675-1676) led by Nathaniel Bacon against the colony's royal governor, Sir William Berkeley. Although some of his followers called for an end of special privilege in government, Bacon was chiefly interested in gaining a larger share of the lucrative Indian trade
  21. Spectral Evidence
    In the Salem witch trials, the court allowed reports of dreams and visions in which the accused appeared as the devil's agent to be introduced as testimony The accused had no defense against this kind of evidence. When the judges later disallowed this testimony, the executions for witchcraft ended
  22. Back Country
    In the 18th Century, the edge of settlement extended from western Pennsylvania to Georgia. The region formed the second frontier as settlers moved westward from the Atlantic coast into the nation's interior
  23. Enlightenment
    Philosophical and intellectual movement that began in Europe during the 18th century. It emphasized the application of reason to solve social and scientific problems
  24. Itinerant Preachers
    Traveling revivalist ministers of the Great Awakening movement. These charismatic preachers spread revivalism throughout America
  25. Albany Plan
    Plan of intercolonial cooperation proposed by prominent colonists including Benjamin Franklin at a conference in Albany, New York in 1754. The plan envisioned the formation of a Grand Council of elected delegates from the colonies that would have the power to tax and provide for the common defense. It was rejected by colonial and British governments but it was a prototype for colonial union
  26. Seven Years' War
    Worldwide conflict that pitted Britain against France for control over North America. With help from the American Colonists, the British won the was and eliminated France as a power on the North American continent. Also known in America as the French and Indian War
  27. Whigs
    In the mid 18th century, the Whigs were a political faction that dominated Parliament. Generally, they were opposed to royal influence in government and wanted to increase the control and influence of Parliament. Later, they were associated with Parliamentary Reform
  28. Parliamentary Sovereignty
    Principle that emphasize the power of Parliament to govern colonial affairs as the preeminent authority
  29. Stamp Act Congress
    Meeting of colonial delegates in New York City in October 1765 to protest the Stamp Act, a law passed by Parliament to raise revenue in America. The delegates drafted petitions denouncing the Stamp Act and other taxes imposed on Americans without colonial consent
  30. Boston Massacre
    A violent confrontation between British troops and a Boston mob on March 5, 1770. Five citizens were killed when the troops fired into the crowd. The incident inflamed anti-British sentiment in Massachusetts
  31. Committee of Correspondence
    Vast communication network formed in Massachusetts and other colonies to communicate grievances and provide colonists with evidence of British oppresion
  32. Coercive Acts
    Also known as the Intolerable Acts, the four pieces of legislation passed by Parliament in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party that were meant to punish the colonies
  33. First Continental Congress
    Meeting of delegates from twelve colonies in Philadelphia in 1774. The Congress denied Parliament's authority to legislate for the colonies, condemned British actions toward the colonies, created the Continental Association, and endorsed a call to take up arms
  34. Second Continental Congress
    This meeting took place in Philadelphia in May 1775 in the midst of rapidly unfolding military event. It organized the Continental Army and commissioned George Washington to lead it, then began requisitioning men and supplies for the war effort
  35. Common Sense
    Revolutionary tract written by Thomas Paine in January 1776. It called for independence and the establishment of a republican government in America
  36. Loyalists
    Throughout the conflict with Great Britain, many colonists sided with the kind and Parliament. Also called Tories, these people feared that American liberty would promote social anarchy

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