A & P

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A & P
2011-02-25 11:56:10
Anatomy Physiology

Chapter 1
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  1. The study of function?
  2. The study of structure?
  3. The sum of all the chemical reactions of the human body?
  4. The mainenance of the internal environment
  5. A group of cells make up ?
  6. A group of tissue make?
  7. A group of organs make up ?
    organ system
  8. The structure that seperates the thoracic cavity fromt he abdominopelvic cavity is ?
  9. Refers to the membrane that is attached to an internal organ
  10. Refers to a membrane attached to the wall of a body cavity
  11. The membrane that surrounds the lungs ?
    Visceral Pleura
  12. The membrane that lines the compartments around the lung ?
    Parietal Pleural
  13. The potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura
    Pleural Cavity
  14. The membrane that covers the surface of the heart
    Visceral pericardium
  15. The membrane that lines the cavity around the heart?
    Parietal Pericardium
  16. The potential space between the visceral and parietal pericardium?
    Pericardial Cavity
  17. The human body can be divided into what two portions?
    Axil and Appendicular
  18. The axial portion include ?
    The Head Neck and Trunck
  19. The appendicular portion includes
    the upper and lower limbs
  20. The two main cavities of the axial portion of the body are?
    cranial and vertebral
  21. Organs within a cavity?
  22. Two parts of the dorsal cavity are the
    cranial and vertebral
  23. Brain is found in what cavity
  24. The vertebral cavity contains the?
    Spinal Cord
  25. The ______ contains the thoracic cavity and the abdominalpelvic cavity?
  26. The thoracic cavity contains ?
    The lung and heart
  27. The region between the lungs?
  28. The abdominal pelvic cavity includes the__________portion and the lower _______-portion
    Upper abdominal and Lower pelvic
  29. The heart, esophagus, trachea and the thymus gland are all located
    in the ?
  30. The _____cavity contains the terminal end of the large intestine, uriary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs fo the body?
    the pelvic cavity
  31. The ________ Contains the stomach, liver spleen, gallbladder and small and large intestines
    Abdominal Cavity
  32. The ______ ______ is the membrane that lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity?
    Parietal Periteneum
  33. The _____ ______ is the membrane that covers each organ in the abdominal cavity
    Visceral peritenum
  34. Match the following terms
    1 Superior
    2 Inferior
    3 Anterior
    4 Posterior
    5 Medial
    6 Lateral
    7 Proximal
    8 Distal
    • 1 Above
    • 2 Below
    • 3 In front of
    • 4 Behind
    • 5 Closer to midline
    • 6 Farther from the midline (later)
    • 7 closer to the trunck of the body
    • 8 farther from the trunk of the body
  35. The legnthwise cut that divides the body into right and left protions
  36. The cut through the body that divides it into superior and inferior portions?
    Transverse (in half... upper and lower)
  37. The section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions?
  38. The study of chemisty of living organisms is called?
  39. Anything that has weight and takes up space
  40. All Matter is composed of?
  41. Elements are composed of tiny particles called?
  42. An ______ consist of a central portion called the nucleaus and at least one electron traveling around it
  43. There are_______ and ________ in the nucleus of an atom
    protons and neutrons
  44. An ion is an atom that has gained or lost an ?
  45. When two or more electrically charged atoms form a chemical bond by loosing or gaining electrons, What is formed?
    Ionic Bond
  46. When two or more atoms bond by sharing electrons what is formed?
    Covalent Bond
  47. A __________ is formed when two or more atoms of the same element bond together?
  48. When two or more different atoms bond together a ________ is the result?
    A compound
  49. The chemical reaction where two or more atoms bond to form a more complex structure?
  50. What takes place when the bonds of a molecule are broken and simpler molecules or atoms are formed?
  51. what kind of reaction can change back to what it was before the reaction took place?
  52. An atom or molecule that is not consumed during a chemical reaction but must be present for the reaction to take place?
  53. A substance that when put in water breaks up or dissociates into ions?
  54. Cations are _____ charged ions because they have ______ an electron
    Positive and looses
  55. Anions are _____ charged ions because they have ______ an electron
    Negative and gained an electron
  56. Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water are called?
  57. electrolytes that release substances such as OH(hydroxyl groups) that combine with hydrogen ions are ?
  58. The substances formed when a reaction occurs between and acid and a base
  59. Acids and bases are measured on the ____ scale
  60. The PH is really the number of _______ present in a solution
    Hydrogen Ions
  61. A High PH means the solution is ______ and has a _____ number of hydrogen ions.
    basic and low
  62. A solution with a high number of hydrogen ions has a ______ PH and is called ?
    low and Acid
  63. Pure water has a PH of 7 because the number of ____ ______ equals the number of ______-_______
    Hydrogen Ions and Hydroxyl Ions
  64. A PH range of ____-_____ is said to be
  65. A PH range of _____-______ is said to be basic
  66. Substances contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms?
  67. As a general rule ______substances do not contain carbon atoms
  68. List 4 Inorganic substances
    • 1 water
    • 2 oxygen
    • 3 carbon Dioxide
    • 4 salts
  69. List 4 organic substances
    • 1 Carbohydrates
    • 2 Lipids
    • 3 Proteins
    • 4 Nucleic Acid
  70. Carbohydrates are made up of
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
  71. the molecular formula for a monosaccharide is
  72. List 3 monosaccarides
    • 1glucose
    • 2fructose
    • 3galactose
  73. list 3 disaccarides
    • 1 Sucrose
    • 2 Lactose
    • 3 maltose
  74. A polysaccharide is ______ and ______ is an example found in humans
    Glycogen and cellulose
  75. Carbohydrates are _____soluble so they are said to be _____
    • water and hydrophilic
  76. The only carbohydrate that can be used as an energy source for your brain is ??
  77. Lipids are ____water soluble and are said to be ________
    Not --hydrophobic
  78. Lipids are made up of three groups of compounds
    • Fats
    • Steroids
    • Phospholipids
  79. A triclyceride contains ___and three ____-____
    Glycerol and 3 fatty acid molecules
  80. contains one glycerol, two fatty acids and a phosphate group
  81. Because of its structure phospholipids are both ___&_____and are major components of cell _____
    • hydrophilic and
    • hydrophobic
    • Membranes
  82. Besides energy, proteins can be used by the body for ____-____& _____
    hormones, receptors, structural material
  83. The building blocks of protein are
    Amino Acids
  84. A _____ bond is the bond that holds amino acids together
  85. A long chain of polypeptides
  86. ________ are proteins that act as catalyst in living systems
  87. _____ control the chemical reactions that occur in cells and therefore control all the activities of the cell
  88. the two types of nucleic acids are
    • RNA - ribonucleic acid
    • DNA - dioxyribonucleic acid
  89. The building blocks of nucleic acid are
  90. Nucleotides are made of three parts which include a
    • 5 carbon sugar
    • phosphate group
    • organic base

    one of several nitrogenous bases
  91. DNA is ____________
    It contains _______ sugar and forms a double ___________chain
    • dioxyribonucleic acid
    • deoxyribose
    • polynucleotide
  92. RNA is _____-
    It contains _______ sugar and forms a ______ polynucleotide _____.
    • ribonucleic acid
    • ribose
    • single
    • chain
  93. List the 4 nucleotide bases in a DNA chain
    • Adenine
    • Thymine
    • Cytosine
    • Guamine
  94. Adenine always pairs with ___in a DNA chain
  95. Cytosine always pairs with ___ in a DNA chain
  96. DNA contains the ____-code which is found in the ____-of base pairs
    • genetic
    • codon
  97. In the RNA chain,_____ takes the place of thymine
  98. RNA is used in the _____ of proteins
  99. human cells are of the _____type
  100. The two major parts of a cell are the ___&____
    Nucleus and Cytoplasm
  101. the ___ _____ surrounds the cytoplasm, is chemically made of proteins and lipids and is slectively _____
    • Plasma Membrane
    • permiable
  102. The ____ is the brain of the cell and is the site of _____ production
    • Nucleus
    • (ribosome)
  103. The ___ is the substance between the cells membrane and the nucleus
  104. Ribosomes are found in the _____ as well as in the ____ of the cell
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • cytoplasm
  105. The site of protein synthesis is in the ____ found in the cytoplasm
  106. Endoplasmic Reticulum associated with ribisomes is said to be _____
    Rough ER
  107. The ____ is the site of aerobic respiration and is called the ___-____ of the cell
    • Mitochondria
    • Power House
  108. The __-&____ are motility structures and causes some type of movement
    • Cillia
    • Flagellum
  109. The sperm cell is the only human cell with a _____
  110. ______processes are membraneous sacs of the cell that store digestive enzymes to help destroy some type of substance
  111. _____processes need no energy input from the cell to transport substances through the cell membrane
  112. _____ processes rely on energy expended by the cell and requires a protein carrier molecule to transport substances through cell membranes
  113. The process by which molecules or ions spontaneously move from regions of higher concentrations towards regions of lower concentration is _____-
    simple diffusion
  114. _____-_____ is the movement of ions or molecules from an area of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration with the help of a protein carrier molecule
    facilitated diffusion
  115. ____- is the movement of water from a higher concentraion to a lower concentration through a permeable membrane until equilibrium is reached
  116. soulutions with an equal osmotic concentration to tissue fluid is called an ___-solution
    isotonic solution
  117. a soulution with a higher osmotic pressure than tissue fluid is
  118. a solution with a greater concentration of water in it than is in tissue fluids is reffered to as being _____
  119. ____ occurs when a substance is forced through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure
  120. the sump is an example of ___Transport
    Active Transport
  121. When a cell undergoes _____, it engulfs solid particles
  122. when a cell undergoes ____-, it engulfs microscopic drops of liquid
  123. The cell cycle last from the time it is ____ until ____
    • formed
    • reproduced
  124. ____is the stage in the cell cycle when the cell is producing organells and sythesisizing new substances
  125. ____is the stage in the cell cycle cell division occurs
  126. karyokinesis is the ____ during _____
    • Division of the nucleus
    • mitosis
  127. Cytokinesis is the _____during ____
    • Division of the cytoplasm
    • Anaphase
  128. List the four phases of mitosis :
    • 1 Prophase
    • 2 Metaphase
    • 3 Anaphase
    • 4 telephase
  129. the two daughter cells prodiced after cell division must have the exact same ______ but not the same number of organelles
  130. a ___ is a disorganized mass formed from an abnormal growth or neoplasm
  131. a ___ tumor usually remains in one place is slow growing and is not invasive
  132. a _____ tumor is invasive, fast growing and may _____ to the other areas of the body
    • malignant
    • metastisize
  133. ____- is a reaction where energy is ____ to build larger molecules from a smaller one
    • anabolic
    • required
  134. _______ is a reaction that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones and energy is _______
    • catabolic
    • given
  135. all chemical reactions in the human body are controlled by _____-______
    Metabolic Process
  136. Define cellular respiration
    Nutrients are broken down to make energy in the form of ATP
  137. ____&____ are the two types of cellular respiration
    • Anaerobic
    • Aerobic
  138. Vitamin compounds provide how much energy from catobolism to the body
  139. Vitamins act as ___ during energy metabolism
  140. ATP stands for ____ and is known for ____ energy carrier
    • Adenosine triphosphate
    • Primary
  141. Energy produced aerobically requires?
  142. Energy produced _____ does not require oxygen
  143. the first phase of glucose breakdown is called _____ and takes place with out the need for ___?
    • glycolosis
    • O2
  144. The breakdown of gluclose make a six carbon compound called____ and energy is in the form of ____?
    • pyruvate
    • ATP
  145. The rate limiting enzyme of glycolosis is _______
  146. if oxygen is not present, what happens to the pyruvate made during the oxidation of glucose?
    it is converted to lactic acid
  147. all the enzymes needed for glycolosis are found in the ____of the cell
  148. carbohydrates are stored in the liver as
  149. the tca cycle, or _____ or____ occurs in the _____ of the cell and requires _____ to be used?
    • Kreb
    • Citric acid
    • mitocondrian
    • oxygen
  150. describe the electron transport chain
  151. what happens to the energy found on the electrons of the hydrogens as they are passed down the ETC?
    Captured in ATP
  152. What happens to the hydrogen at the end of the ETC? they are bonded to ______&______
    • Oxygen
    • Water
  153. List four things made during the complete breakdown of glucose
    • 1 ATP
    • 2 Heat
    • 3 (H2O)water
    • 4 Energy
  154. List four main types of tissue in the human body?
    • 1 Epithelial
    • 2 Nervous
    • 3 Connective
    • 4 Muscle
  155. _____ tissue protects, secretes, and excretes substances
  156. ____binds supports stores fat and produces blood cells
  157. the function of all muscle tissue is to
    contract causing movement
  158. ____ tissue transmits impulses for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception
  159. list the common characteristics of epithelial tissues
    • avascular
    • free surface
    • protective barrier
    • base membrane
    • lines organs
  160. epithelial tissues are characterized by ___,_____and _____
    cell shape, cell type and cell function
  161. List the simple epithelial tissues
    • 1 Simple squamos
    • 2 Simple Cuboidal
    • 3 Simple Columnar
    • 4 pseudostratified colunar
    • 5 goblet????
  162. list the epithelial tissues laid down in layers.
    • 1 stratified squamos
    • 2 stratified cuboidal
    • 3 stratified columnar
    • 4 transitional
  163. the type of epithelial tissue found in endocrine and exocrine glands is?
  164. List the common characteristics of the different types of connective tissue
    • common origin
    • degreee of vascularity
    • extracellular matrix
  165. in connective tissue the cells have a filler between them reffered to as the
    extracellular matrix
  166. the three basic types of fibers produced by fibroblast are?
    • collogenous
    • reticular
    • elastic
  167. List all the types of the connective tissue
    • loose connective tissue
    • dense connective tissue
    • cartilage
    • bone
    • blood
  168. the ___- is the loose connective tissue that holds the skin on the body tightly
  169. another name for adipose tissue is
    fat (adipocyte)
  170. the most rigid connective tissue is _____ and is called _______
    • cartilage
    • chondrocytes
  171. osseous tissue is a storage area for
  172. the connective tissue with a liquid matrix is
  173. Name the three types of muscle tissue found in the human body
    • cardiac
    • skeletol
    • smooth
  174. nervous tissue is found in the ___ ____ and ___
    • brain
    • spinal cord
    • joints