A & P
Card Set Information
A & P
The study of function?
The study of structure?
The sum of all the chemical reactions of the human body?
The mainenance of the internal environment
A group of cells make up ?
A group of tissue make?
A group of organs make up ?
The structure that seperates the thoracic cavity fromt he abdominopelvic cavity is ?
Refers to the membrane that is attached to an internal organ
Refers to a membrane attached to the wall of a body cavity
The membrane that surrounds the lungs ?
The membrane that lines the compartments around the lung ?
The potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura
The membrane that covers the surface of the heart
The membrane that lines the cavity around the heart?
The potential space between the visceral and parietal pericardium?
The human body can be divided into what two portions?
Axil and Appendicular
The axial portion include ?
The Head Neck and Trunck
The appendicular portion includes
the upper and lower limbs
The two main cavities of the axial portion of the body are?
cranial and vertebral
Organs within a cavity?
Two parts of the dorsal cavity are the
cranial and vertebral
Brain is found in what cavity
The vertebral cavity contains the?
The ______ contains the thoracic cavity and the abdominalpelvic cavity?
The thoracic cavity contains ?
The lung and heart
The region between the lungs?
The abdominal pelvic cavity includes the__________portion and the lower _______-portion
Upper abdominal and Lower pelvic
The heart, esophagus, trachea and the thymus gland are all located
in the ?
The _____cavity contains the terminal end of the large intestine, uriary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs fo the body?
the pelvic cavity
The ________ Contains the stomach, liver spleen, gallbladder and small and large intestines
The ______ ______ is the membrane that lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity?
The _____ ______ is the membrane that covers each organ in the abdominal cavity
Match the following terms
3 In front of
5 Closer to midline
6 Farther from the midline (later)
7 closer to the trunck of the body
8 farther from the trunk of the body
The legnthwise cut that divides the body into right and left protions
The cut through the body that divides it into superior and inferior portions?
Transverse (in half... upper and lower)
The section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions?
The study of chemisty of living organisms is called?
Anything that has weight and takes up space
All Matter is composed of?
Elements are composed of tiny particles called?
An ______ consist of a central portion called the nucleaus and at least one electron traveling around it
There are_______ and ________ in the nucleus of an atom
protons and neutrons
An ion is an atom that has gained or lost an ?
When two or more electrically charged atoms form a chemical bond by loosing or gaining electrons, What is formed?
When two or more atoms bond by sharing electrons what is formed?
A __________ is formed when two or more atoms of the same element bond together?
When two or more different atoms bond together a ________ is the result?
The chemical reaction where two or more atoms bond to form a more complex structure?
What takes place when the bonds of a molecule are broken and simpler molecules or atoms are formed?
what kind of reaction can change back to what it was before the reaction took place?
An atom or molecule that is not consumed during a chemical reaction but must be present for the reaction to take place?
A substance that when put in water breaks up or dissociates into ions?
Cations are _____ charged ions because they have ______ an electron
Positive and looses
Anions are _____ charged ions because they have ______ an electron
Negative and gained an electron
Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water are called?
electrolytes that release substances such as OH(hydroxyl groups) that combine with hydrogen ions are ?
The substances formed when a reaction occurs between and acid and a base
Acids and bases are measured on the ____ scale
The PH is really the number of _______ present in a solution
A High PH means the solution is ______ and has a _____ number of hydrogen ions.
basic and low
A solution with a high number of hydrogen ions has a ______ PH and is called ?
Pure water has a PH of 7 because the number of ____ ______ equals the number of ______-_______
Hydrogen Ions and Hydroxyl Ions
A PH range of ____-_____ is said to be
A PH range of _____-______ is said to be basic
Substances contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms?
As a general rule ______substances do not contain carbon atoms
3 carbon Dioxide
4 Nucleic Acid
Carbohydrates are made up of
the molecular formula for a monosaccharide is
List 3 monosaccarides
list 3 disaccarides
A polysaccharide is ______ and ______ is an example found in humans
Glycogen and cellulose
Carbohydrates are _____soluble so they are said to be _____
water and hydrophilic
The only carbohydrate that can be used as an energy source for your brain is ??
Lipids are ____water soluble and are said to be ________
Lipids are made up of three groups of compounds
A triclyceride contains ___and three ____-____
Glycerol and 3 fatty acid molecules
contains one glycerol, two fatty acids and a phosphate group
Because of its structure phospholipids are both ___&_____and are major components of cell _____
Besides energy, proteins can be used by the body for
hormones, receptors, structural material
The building blocks of protein are
A _____ bond is the bond that holds amino acids together
A long chain of polypeptides
are proteins that act as catalyst in living systems
control the chemical reactions that occur in cells and therefore control all the activities of the cell
the two types of nucleic acids are
RNA - ribonucleic acid
DNA - dioxyribonucleic acid
The building blocks of nucleic acid are
Nucleotides are made of three parts which include a
5 carbon sugar
one of several nitrogenous bases
DNA is ____________
It contains _______ sugar and forms a double ___________chain
RNA is _____-
It contains _______ sugar and forms a ______ polynucleotide _____.
List the 4 nucleotide bases in a DNA chain
Adenine always pairs with ___in a DNA chain
Cytosine always pairs with ___ in a DNA chain
DNA contains the ____-code which is found in the ____-of base pairs
In the RNA chain,_____ takes the place of thymine
RNA is used in the _____ of proteins
human cells are of the _____type
The two major parts of a cell are the ___&____
Nucleus and Cytoplasm
the ___ _____ surrounds the cytoplasm, is chemically made of proteins and lipids and is slectively _____
The ____ is the brain of the cell and is the site of _____ production
The ___ is the substance between the cells membrane and the nucleus
Ribosomes are found in the _____ as well as in the ____ of the cell
The site of protein synthesis is in the ____ found in the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum associated with ribisomes is said to be _____
The ____ is the site of aerobic respiration and is called the ___-____ of the cell
The __-&____ are motility structures and causes some type of movement
The sperm cell is the only human cell with a _____
______processes are membraneous sacs of the cell that store digestive enzymes to help destroy some type of substance
_____processes need no energy input from the cell to transport substances through the cell membrane
_____ processes rely on energy expended by the cell and requires a protein carrier molecule to transport substances through cell membranes
The process by which molecules or ions spontaneously move from regions of higher concentrations towards regions of lower concentration is _____-
_____-_____ is the movement of ions or molecules from an area of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration with the help of a protein carrier molecule
____- is the movement of water from a higher concentraion to a lower concentration through a permeable membrane until equilibrium is reached
soulutions with an equal osmotic concentration to tissue fluid is called an ___-solution
a soulution with a higher osmotic pressure than tissue fluid is
a solution with a greater concentration of water in it than is in tissue fluids is reffered to as being _____
____ occurs when a substance is forced through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure
the sump is an example of ___Transport
When a cell undergoes _____, it engulfs solid particles
when a cell undergoes ____-, it engulfs microscopic drops of liquid
The cell cycle last from the time it is ____ until ____
____is the stage in the cell cycle when the cell is producing organells and sythesisizing new substances
____is the stage in the cell cycle cell division occurs
karyokinesis is the ____ during _____
Division of the nucleus
Cytokinesis is the _____during ____
Division of the cytoplasm
List the four phases of mitosis :
the two daughter cells prodiced after cell division must have the exact same ______ but not the same number of organelles
a ___ is a disorganized mass formed from an abnormal growth or neoplasm
a ___ tumor usually remains in one place is slow growing and is not invasive
a _____ tumor is invasive, fast growing and may _____ to the other areas of the body
____- is a reaction where energy is ____ to build larger molecules from a smaller one
_______ is a reaction that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones and energy is _______
all chemical reactions in the human body are controlled by _____-______
Define cellular respiration
Nutrients are broken down to make energy in the form of ATP
____&____ are the two types of cellular respiration
Vitamin compounds provide how much energy from catobolism to the body
Vitamins act as ___ during energy metabolism
ATP stands for ____ and is known for ____ energy carrier
Energy produced aerobically requires?
Energy produced _____ does not require oxygen
the first phase of glucose breakdown is called _____ and takes place with out the need for ___?
The breakdown of gluclose make a six carbon compound called____ and energy is in the form of ____?
The rate limiting enzyme of glycolosis is _______
if oxygen is not present, what happens to the pyruvate made during the oxidation of glucose?
it is converted to lactic acid
all the enzymes needed for glycolosis are found in the ____of the cell
carbohydrates are stored in the liver as
the tca cycle, or _____ or____ occurs in the _____ of the cell and requires _____ to be used?
describe the e
lectron transport chain
what happens to the energy found on the electrons of the hydrogens as they are passed down the ETC?
Captured in ATP
What happens to the hydrogen at the end of the ETC? they are bonded to ______&______
List four things made during the complete breakdown of glucose
List four main types of tissue in the human body?
_____ tissue protects, secretes, and excretes substances
____binds supports stores fat and produces blood cells
the function of all muscle tissue is to
contract causing movement
____ tissue transmits impulses for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception
list the common characteristics of epithelial tissues
epithelial tissues are characterized by ___,_____and _____
cell shape, cell type and cell function
List the simple epithelial tissues
1 Simple squamos
2 Simple Cuboidal
3 Simple Columnar
4 pseudostratified colunar
list the epithelial tissues laid down in layers.
1 stratified squamos
2 stratified cuboidal
3 stratified columnar
the type of epithelial tissue found in endocrine and exocrine glands is?
List the common characteristics of the different types of connective tissue
degreee of vascularity
in connective tissue the cells have a filler between them reffered to as the
the three basic types of fibers produced by fibroblast are?
List all the types of the connective tissue
loose connective tissue
dense connective tissue
the ___- is the loose connective tissue that holds the skin on the body tightly
another name for adipose tissue is
the most rigid connective tissue is _____ and is called _______
osseous tissue is a storage area for
the connective tissue with a liquid matrix is
Name the three types of muscle tissue found in the human body
nervous tissue is found in the ___ ____ and ___