pharm chap 13

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Author:
vongc2
ID:
66184
Filename:
pharm chap 13
Updated:
2011-02-13 23:35:37
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pharm chap
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Description:
skeletal muscle relaxants
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  1. where do skeletal muscle relaxants work?
    • sc level
    • nmj
    • muscle itself

    *paralytics prevent muscle contractions, not muscle relaxants
  2. Spacticity
    • injury to cns and brain
    • exagerated muscle stretch reflex
    • decreased descending inhibition to alpha motor neurons
  3. muscle spasms
    • damage to peripheral nerve root rather than cns
    • increased tension and inflammation after muscle injury
    • tonic contractions-build up latate
    • noceceptive input from damaged tissue exites alpha motor neurons which pertpetuates spasms
  4. list two agents used to treat muscle spasms
    • diazapam
    • polysynaptic inhibitors
  5. diazapam (valium) works by...
    is used for...
    adverse affects are...
    • potentiating gaba
    • acute lbp-short term management
    • sedation, dependence, tolerance, decreased physcomotor ability
  6. carisprodol
    • aka soma
    • polysynaptic inhibitor
    • use with caution, metabolizes to meprobamate (strong potential for abuse)
  7. cyclobenzaprine
    • aka flexaril
    • polysynaptic inhibitor
    • blocks serotonin receptors (dc's alpha motor neuron activity)
  8. metaxalone
    • aka skelaxin
    • Polysynaptic inhibitor
  9. methocarbamol
    • aka robaxin, skelex
    • polysynaptic inhibitor
  10. orphenadrine citrate
    • aka Norflex
    • polysynaptic inhibitor
    • Noregesic= norflex+asprin+caffeine
  11. baclofen
    • aka lioresal
    • treats spasticty
    • gaba derivative and gabab receptor agonist
    • drug of choice for ms- lacks adverse effects
    • also used to treat chronic alcohol abuse
    • adverse effects:confusion and hallucinations
  12. when is intrathecal bacolfen used?
    adverse effects?
    • severe, intractable spaciticty
    • pump malfuction, tolerance, respiratory depression
  13. dantrolene sodium
    • aka dantrium
    • treats spasticty
    • effects muscle directly by impairing release of caclium
    • effective in severe spasticity
    • a.r. - hepatotoxity
  14. diazapam
    • aka valium
    • treats spasticty and muscle spasm
    • potentiates gaba
    • used for cerebral palsy and sc lesions
  15. gabapentin
    • aka neurontin
    • treats spasticty
    • raises overall level of inhibition in sc
    • used with SCI and MS
    • a.r.- ataxia
  16. tizanidine
    • aka zanaflex
    • treats spasticty
    • alpha 2 adrenergic agonist
    • inhibits firing of interneurons (pre and postsynaptic inhibition
    • also treats chronic Head aches and pain
    • just as effective as baclofen and diazepam, but with better side effect profile
    • a.r.- sedation , dizzyness, and dry mouth
  17. botulinum toxin
    • muslce relaxant
    • inhibits release of ACH by inhibiting proteins needed for ACH release

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