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1871 Published "The Descent of Man", furthering the notion of the evolution of man, developed theory of natural selection, survival of the fittest. Giving rise to misinterpretations of racial superiority.
Survival of the fittest, fittest being the most adaptive. Used as an impetus to subdivide humans based on race and class. Superiority was exemplified through winning wars, and colonialism. Hitler's interpretation of social darwinism leads him to strive for the development of a perfect race. Nuremberg laws are enacted, outlawing misogyny between German and Jews. Colonialism was a means to modernize the "savages" while exploiting their resources.
Challenged the notion that humans are rational beings, and posed the notion that most of our behavior springs from feelings and instincts. The thought that behavior was instinctual was previously thought of in regards to animals and savages.
Second Industrial Revolution
Period of time where mass production and efficiency were emphasized; ie Henry Ford's assembly line. There is a notable increase in industrial output, and US influence, while British influence begins to diminish. There are also major population shifts into larger cities.
This is the outburst of imperialism that occurred between 1880-1914. The distinguishable characteristic of this imperialism was the moral justification of the colonizers; often cited as an effort to modernize and better the natives. Underlying reasons for imperialism were to capture previously closed markets, increasing revenue, and to prove national virility.
Violent uprising in China against foreigners that "mobilized the young and the poor, including women, and had the backing of the powerful empress-mother." Foreign powers quelled the uprising, discrediting the Quing dynasty, leading to their eventual downfall, stirring up Chinese Nationalism.
Spanish American War
The Spanish American War was a war waged against Spain by the US to free the natives from their oppressors, in Philippines and Cuba; it is significant in the fact that it marks the end of the Spanish Empire, at the hands of the US.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Heir to the Austrian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo Bosnia, causing retaliatory and anti-retaliatory involvement by Austria and Serbia, and their allies, resulting in WWI
planned assassination of Francis Ferdinand, strategized by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist bent on establishing a homeland for his people. The assassination was aimed at causing a war that would break up the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Woodrow Wilson and his 14 points
Woodrow Wilson, WWI US President, meant for these principles to govern a peace settlement treaty, and to foster cooperation between nations, and led to the formation of the League of Nations. The points were also meant to establish the rights of non-westerners in colonized regions. Wilson was widely heralded for his attempt to negotiate treaties, though in actuality did little for the rights of the colonized. The Treaty of Versaille, was filled with injustices and inequities that it soon had few defenders.
French WWI Prime Minister, was Wilsons' adversary in the peace talkes that ended WWI. He called for sever demilitarization, steep reparations and economic limitation of Germany, as he was convinced of a future rise in their military aggression. The harhness of Georges Clemenceau is thought to be due to the war being mainly fought on French land, and the demolition it caused to France. the Treaty of Versailles was the creation of a document filled with compromises that both Clemenceau and Wilson could sign.
Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente
- in 1914 Europe was divided into two combinations of powers...
- TRIPLE ALLIANCE, Germany, Austria and Italy; and the TRIPLE ENTENTE, France, Russia, and Britain.
- These alliances were developed to discourage war based on the potential for fighting multiple enemies, however, they emboldened smaller states to go to war, with confidence in the backing from their allies.
Tsar Nicolas II (Russia) and Kaiser William II (Germany)
these are the last monarchs of Russia and Germany, WWI rivals, leading their countries to poor ends, and both abdicated under pressure. Both leaders were out of touch with their countries and their people. Their declines led to nationalist movements leading to the rise of Communism in Russia, and to the rise of Nazism in Germany.
Wartime Economic Planning
need to research
Paris Peace Conference
- January of 1919, a conference gathered in Paris to write the peace treaties following WWI:
- The Treaty of Sevres
- 3 treaties that specifically dealt with Southeastern Europe
- The Treaty of Versailles.
- the important decisions of this conference were created by the big 3, Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, and British Prime Minister Lloyd George. Italy could also be included making it the big 4.
Treaty of Versailles
Germany had to confess to starting WWI, their army was limited, prohibits German submarines or airforce. Austria was forbidden to to merge with Germany, Czechoslovakia was given a defensible mountainous border, putting millions of Germans under Czech rule. Poland was given a "polish Corridor" cutting into germany, to the Baltic Sea. germany was forced to pay reparations, forced to take huge loans from US, and Rhineland was demilitarized zone. Causing German fear and humiliation. french were unhappy with treaty due to its being temporary, and did not sustain peace. US refused to ratify treaty in end.
The Dictated Peace
The peace that was forced upon Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. Confusing to most germans because they had never been invaded, nor did they feel at fault for the war, nor did they feel that they had lost the war.
League of Nations and Mandates
- the last of Wilson's 14 points intended to construct the framework for international relations. It developed the League of Nations, an association whose members pledged to preserve one another's independence and territorial integrity.
- The mandates stated that the German territories in Africa and the Middle East, and those of the Ottoman Empire, were to be handed over to France and Britain as "mandates" not colonies; these lands were to be held in trust by France and Britain, for the League of Nations.
The 19th Century movement that recognized a common ethnic background among the various Slav peoples of eastern and east central Europe, and sought to unite those peoples for the achievement of common cultural and political goals.
"A Place in the Sun"
Germany was going through a rough time pre WWI. They had been a rapid industrializer, and it created stress on their society. To bring them a together, their needed to be a common enemy; the German Kaiser used Britain as that enemy, stating that Britain was not giving them "a place in the sun." A call for German Nationalism.
Japan and WWI
Japan was Britain's ally and snatched up German possessions and appropriated the German slice of China, post WWI
Part of the Ottoman Empire and location of a long, futile battle with severe casualties of allied forces beginning in April 1915 and ending in fall of 1915 with the British withdrawing their troops.
Lawrence of Arabia
T.E. Lawrence was a British military liason to the Arab revolt in WWi, he also served in the British delegation at the Paris Peace Conference.
Treaty of Versailles
German reparations, confess cause of war, loss of land, demilitarization, germans put under czech rule, caused german fear and humiliation. french not happy due to its being temporary, not ratified by US Congress
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
To measure the properties of a particle such as an electron, one needs to use a measuring device, usually light or radiation... this scientific finding leads to the development of larger scale weaponry and ultimately leads to nuclear weaponry.
In 1896, Ethiopia was attacked by Italy, and became the only African country to successfully fight against imperialism. In 1935, Mussolini attacked once again, in an attempt to re-establish the Roman Empire and prove virility. Leads to the undoing of Fascism.
Twenty One Demands and the Washington Conference
in January 1915, Japan makes 21 secret demands of China, or else they would wage war, Japan demanded an answer by May 1915. Chine reluctantly accepted, agreeing to lease territory to foreign powers and to relinquish control to Japan. The demands were anulled in 1921-22, by the Washington Conference, and Japan had to restore China's sovereignty.
Provisional Government in Russia 1917
Liberal Revolution led by Alexander Kerensky, immediately following the fall of Tsar Nicholas II. Kerensky believed Russia should honor its alliances in War, against popular russian beliefs and wishes. Lenin led a coup against Kerensky and the Provisional Government promising peace land and Bread, successfully toppling the provisional government.
Alexander Kerensky and the Provisional Government
The Provisional Government were the immediate successors to after the fall of the Tsar, known as the DUMA, it was the new parliament that was created by the Tsar's concessions during his reign, after the Bloody Sunday Massacre, and the loss to Japan. The DUMA was an ultraconservative political body with little power, led by Alexander Kerensky, who siezed the opportunity to tule Russia post Tsar. Alexander Kerensky moved up the ranks of the DUMA, from minister of justice, to war, eventually to Prime Minister.
Duma and the Soviets
The Duma intended to convene a democratically chosen Constituent Assembly, formed to give Russia a true constitution, though the gov't quickly became unpopular, due to Kerensky's reluctance to pull out of war. The SOVIETS came about through a grassroots democracy, consisting of disgruntled workers and soldiers, they organized councils, SOVIETS, and elected a hierarchy of Councils of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, that amounted to a rival government of Russia.
Lenin, the Bolshevik Party, and the November Coup
- Lenin: Russian Social democrat, living in Switzerland, sent to Russia to undermine the Provisional Government; successful by pointing out the governments inadequacies of their revolution.
- The Bolsheviks, Lenin's faction of the Social Democratic Party, had its based in the Soviets, led by Lenin to seize power from the Provisional Gov't.
- November Coup- thru 1917 Bolshevik representation grew, outpowering the gov't, in Novebmber 1917, Bolsheviks occupied government headqtrs, toppling the government
Difference between Philosophy of Marx and Lenin
- Marxism belief would have postponed the Russian revolution, to allow for further development of industrialization, creating a proletarian revolution.
- Lenin's believed in the possibility of capturing power NOW, by giving the Russians what they wanted , and end to the war, giving land to peasants, feeding the starving; all by imposing whatever sanctions and controls deemed necessary.
Peace Land and Bread
The battle cry of Lenin, stating that the Russian government should provide "Peace Land and Bread", alluding to the provisional government's inadequacies and failures. Rousing the Russians, allowing for the toppling of the Provisional Government and its being replaced by the Soviets.
Red Army vs. the Whites
- Lenin's Communist Party, aka the Bolsheviks, made quick changes, surrendering fertil land to Germany, abolishing private ownership of land, seized food from the peasantry to feed the starving, through "WAR COMMUNISM." Lenin nationalized the banks, confiscated industries and created state controlled trusts, and repudiated foreign debt. Lenin also established equality or women, eased conditions for divorce and abortion, and provided education for all. The RED government, was of minority opinion on the global scale, and they ruled with an iron fist.
- The WHITES, were the non russian nationals living in Russia, they staged a rebellion within Russia against communist rule. The Trotsky led REDs quickly surmounted the counterrevolution.
State Capitalism and the Five Year Plans
- In Russia, state capitalism predominated industry: work is planned, financed, and managed by the state. Directors of industry are appointed by the state, and profits are considered income of the state.
- State Capitalism was the method utilized by Stalin in his 5 year plans to Bring Russia into modern society with in 10 years.
Lenin's NEW ECONOMIC POLICY of 1921
Lenin's attempt to secure communism, and to appease the public. The NEW ECONOMIC POLICY ended war communism by establishing free enterprise system in agriculture and retail trades. it was Lenin's pragmatic decision to temporarily slow the pace of the revolution to consolidate communist rule, without losing the support of the Russian people.
one of Russia's ethic nationalities, the dark people, Stalin was the General Sec. of the Communist Party, that rose to lead after Lenin's death. His ruthless ambition led to his control of the communist party; he forbade deviation from the party line, which he defined. enabled by Lenin's actions of creating a party dictatorship, Stalin was able to create a Totalitarian Regime. All dissension led to expulsion, ending all hopes of egalitarianism or Bolshevik idealism.
Socialism in one Country
Because the world had failed to follow Russia into revolution, Stalin was convinced that the task of the Marxists was to strengthen "Socialism in one country", done my making the Soviet Union a mighty industrial power. Stalin believed Russia was fifty years behind the advanced countries of the world, and his policy called for the rapid advancement of technology and industry in 10 years, or to be crushed.
The confiscation of private lands and farms and industries for the states control. Stalin liquidated the the Kulaks land, massing the together on collective farms, thousands of times bigger than any private farm. Collectivized farms utilized more effective tools and modes of farming, and were highly mechanized. Collectivization led to a peasant resistance, reducing agricultural yield and productivity to NOTHING, leading to Russia's mass starvation between 1931-33.
Five Year Plans
Stalin's two-tiered plan to bring Russia into the modern world in 10 years. The USSR's first 5 year plan was launched in 1928; it squeezed capital for Russian industrialization from agriculture, it un-did the work of the NEP of 1921, it confiscated the farm lands from private ownership and collectivized them, with the intent of yielding higher productivity to fund Russia's industrialization.
Indian National Congress (INC)
Indians had challenged British rule from its inception in many ways, including violent rebellions both great and small. The indian National Congress was formed in 1885 as a confederation regional and local political figures. The INC was a political movement on a national scale. in 1931, under Ghandi's influence, the INC adopted a bill of rights, calling for equality regardless of sex, caste, or religion.
in 1919, in India, a local British commander in the Punjab demonstrated the firmness of British authority by ordering his soldiers to fire on an unarmed crowd. Brigadier Reginald Dyer's troops killed nearly 400 people, and wounded over a thousand; the world reacted with horror, Brigadier Dyer was reprimanded by his military supervisors, and censured by the House of Commons.
Franklin D Roosevelt and the New Deal
- The New Deal was a set of government programs developed by FDR, to combat the depression. The programs incliuded:
- *FDIC- Federal Deposit Insurance Corp
- *AAA- Agricultural Adjustment Act
- *CCC- Civilian Conservation Corp
- *NLRB- National Labor Relations Board
- *NRA- National Recovery Administration
Works ProgressAdministration and the Social Security Act
- WPA was the largest New Deal Agency, it employed millions across the US for public works such as bridges, parks, public art.
- SSA was a new deal program to provide financial assistance to aged individuals and began in 1935.
John Maynard Keynes
British Economist whose theory that governments could mitigate economic depressions through fiscal and monetary measures (deficit spending). Different from the view of Adam Smith.
- Absolute authoritarian rule of a state.
- Mussolini first fascist ruler, Italian dictator, was prime minister in 1922, then dictator in 1925. Used Black shirts to achieve his aim of intimidation of opponents to gain power
Policy of making Italy totally self-sufficient and independent of foreign suppliers
German government born after WWI, It never won support of the middle class due to HYPERINFLATION and economic depression. First 5 years of government struggled for survival against far right and left radicals. The Weimar Republic was blamed for letting allies exploit their country with Ruhr occupation.
Adolf Hitler and Mein Kampf
Both his autobiography and his political theory; blames Jews and Zionism for germany's struggles. Wants all germans to live in one state, was social darwinist in nature.
National Socialist German Workers Party... NAZIS
German political group led by Hitler to combine nationalism with socialism to protect the "little man in the middle"
Idea that authority comes from the top down, and must be obeyed without question. Nazi groups were adherent to this idea. nazi party infiltrated every aspect of daily life, schools, religion; indoctrination of this principle
Aryan Racial State
A fictitious Aryan Race that only "true" Germans belonged to. Hitler applies this theory to his belief in racial superiority and German nationalism, and causes separation of Jew and germans. This belief created a sub-class of humans in Germany, the Jew. Only those of Aryan blood could attain offices in government.
The SA, known as the Brown Shirts, were the Nazi street army, used to fight and intimidate their opponents before Hitler took power. Their demands after he took power were met with a massacre of many opponent leaders in what is known as the "Night of the Long Knives" in 1934.
An Idea from Hitlers book, Mein Kampf, that the Germans must conquer the lands from the racially inferior slavs in the east, especially the Soviet Union.
Nuremberg Laws and the Kristallnacht
A set of Laws that deprived German Jews of civil rights. An anti-jewish riot was initiated by the assassination of a german diplomat by a polish jew. For two nights rioters burned down synagogues and jewish businesses. The riot was egged on by the Nazis and resulted in support for the Nuremberg Laws.
Government of India Act of 1919
An act of the British Parliament passed to expand participation of the Indian natives in the Indian government. The Indian National Congress was not satisfied with this law, and termed it "disappointing." However, it marked the first introduction of the democratic principle into the executive branch of the British Administration of India.
Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi, Satyagraha and the Salt March
Gandhi orchestrated large civil disobedience campaign against the British Salt Monopoly and salt tax. Salt was a major dietary requirement for poor workers in this hot country.
Satyagraha, Gandhian word for Civil Disobedience
Harijans "children of God"
In an attempt to eliminate discrimination, Gandhi renamed the "untouchable" caste, Harijans. The untouchables were casteless, the lowest of the low in society, and condemned to the jobs the Hindu class deemed as unclean.
Elected president of the Congress Party in 1928 with the aid of Gandhi, and was Independent India's first Prime Minister.
a political party in British India that played a role in the Indian independence movement and developed into a the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim Independent State, on the Indian subcontinent.
Muhammed Ali Jinnah
President of the Muslim League. A charismatic Muslim leader thaht demanded separate states which led to the formation of Pakistan.
declared by Britain who favored the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish People, in Palestine, an attempt to woo American allies.
Author of the book, "The Jewish State" (1896), and one of the founders of the International Zionist Movement
The Palestine Issue
With extensive Jewish immigration, Arabs feared they would become a minority in their homeland. Outbreaks of violence started in 1920 which led to the Arab Revolt 1936-39. The situation grew worse with the rise of Nazism, which created a demand for unlimited immigration of Jews to Palestine. Britain could not come up with a land or immigration compromise between the Zionists and Arabs and turned the territory over to the UN
Lead the 1908 revolution which forced the sultan to reinstate the constitution
1st constitution of the Ottoman Empire, written by members of the Young Ottomans, it was only in effect for 2 years
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
After WWI, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk emerged in Turkey with the goal to create a nation state and successfully avoid the arbitrary dissection of the Turkish territory by the Allies. he westernized Turkey with social and cultural reforms, transferred the nation from Islamic rule into secular. One of his social reforms was the adoption of Western style names from which he acquired the surname Ataturk, "Father Turk".
Ataturk discouraged the veiling of women, abolished polygamy, and made civil marriage mandatory. He improved education for women, brining them into professional and public life, and played an important role in the suffrage movement, which was achieved in 1930. He adopted the Latin Alphabet, increased access to education, and doubled the nations literacy rate.
China remained free of colonial rule until the Qing dynasty, the last chinese dynasty. when China was forced to open up to the West, it only allowed trade at 1 port, which was profitable for the Chinese. The British only had one export, Opium, starting a drug epidemic in China, causing the Qing Dynasty to ban this import, leading to the Opium War, which the British deemed as a war vs. free trade. Chines lost, forcing the opening of more ports to the west, losing profits, and forced into debt. 1911, revolution breaks out, ending in 1912 with the new Chinese Republic, with Sun Tat-Sen as provisional president
- GMD Leader,
- agreed that communists could join the GMD and work as individuals within it, collaborated with the CCP
Guomindang (GMD)/ Kuomingtang (KMT), and Chiang Kai Shek
- *Chinese Nationals Party, mainly supported by middle class and landlord interests
- *forced the Communists (CCP) out of the southern basin after the 1911 collapse of the Chinese Empire
- *1920 Chiang Kai-Shek launched campaigns against the Jiangzi soviet forcing the communists to strike out on the Long March
- *Most important non-western leader of the 20th century
- *emerged as the CCP leader after the Long March
- *Adapted Marxism-Leninism to the Chinese setting
- *Most important themes were populism, championship of the common people, and nationalism
The Long March
- *1920 Chiang Kai-Shek launched campaigns vs the Jiangxi soviet forcing communists to strike out at the Long March
- *6000 mile trek from Jingxi to the new base in the northwest
- *Mao Zedong emerges as CCP leader
- *Only a fraction of the hundred thousand people who set out on the long march survive
Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
- the founding, and ruling party of the people's republic of China, and the worlds largest political party
- **Positioned as the supreme political authority and power in Chinais realized through its control of all state apparatuses and of the legislative process
- **The CCP was founded in May 1920 in Shanghai, and came to rule mainland China after defeating the Kuomingtang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil war
japan's historic high point, 1603-1868
- japan's elite warrior class
- **Samurai felt superior to commoners, and jealously guarded their monopolies
- **Leading member of the warrior class was the Shogun
- **After the Shogun, the next leading member were the lords (daimyo)
- **by the 1850's, the Shogunate was in decline
Japanese conglomerates, the financial cliques
- revolution by way of restoration
- **Changes marked the beginning of modern Japan
- **major changes began with organization of the central government system and the relocation of the imperial capital to Tokyo
- **Created new Army and Navy
- **Made military service compulsory for all men
- **nearly eliminated japan's old social class distinctions
Russo Japanese War
- From 1904-1905
- **Russia declares war based on japan's interference with Russian expansion in the East
- **First major defeat of a European Great Power by a Non-Western Nation
- **The defeat discredited the Russian government
Germany hit hardest by the Great Depression, it wrecked the global economy, by 1932, one in 4 Americans, and two in 5 Germans, were unemployed
**The Great Depression enabled the Rise of Hitler
A socialist alternative combining socialist economy with political democracy
SDP (Germany) vs. KPD
need to research
FDR and the New Deal
- a. FDR inaugurated in March 1933 (almost 4 years after stock market crash)
- b. FDR had promised a New Deal to Americans in desperation
- c. During the first 100 days of the New Deal, Congress passed all legislation proposed by the administration
- d. Banks were reopened with a Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) guarantee
- e. A Federal Emergency Relief Act replenished funds used by states and cities to relieve the distress of one out of seven Americans.
- f. The Agricultural Adjustment Act attacked farm issues
- g. The Civilian Conservation Corps employed young men to work on American environmental conservation
- h. The National Recovery Administration establish codes of fair competition
Chamberlain, Appeasement, and "Peace for our Time"
The Czech situation brought the most severe of the pre-war crises, for France and the Soviet Union were committed by treaty to protect the Czechs. At every Czech concession Hitler escalated his demands and threatened a solution by force. He was not bluffing. In May, he had issued secret orders stating his “unalterable intention to smash Czechoslovakia by military action in the near future.” But he was also willing, grudgingly, to let the democracies deliver Czechoslovakia to him without war. The British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, obliged him. Chamberlain made 3 frantic trips to Germany to negotiate a settlement. In Munich, with Mussolini’s encouragement and France’s acquiescence, Chamberlain and Hitler made terms (Munich Agreement = an act of appeasement). The Czech’s who were not represented, lost their defensible mountain frontier region, where the Sudeten Germans and nearly a million Czechs lived. Chamberlain was heavily criticized for appeasing Hitler, but he did so because he did not want another World War I. During his speech in Britain, he announced that the Munich Agreement heralded “peace in our time”
Hitler-Stalin Non Aggression Pact
August 1939, hitler signs pact with Russia, in prep for poland Attack, guaranteeing the Russians a slice of Poland, and immunity from a German attack. Polish refused to surrender, team with French and British allies... on Sept 1 1939, Germans cross into Poland, and the british and french declare war on Sep 3rd, WWII begins
Spanish Civil War 1936-39
- *For many people, it was the intervention of Mussolini and Hitler on the Nationalist side in the ensuing savage three-year Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 that turned resistance to Franco into a crusade against the international march on fascism
- *As the fascist dictators poured in arms and reinforcements for Franco, idealistic volunteers from many countries formed “international brigades” – among them the American Abraham Lincoln Brigade – to defend the Spanish Republic.
Francisco Franco (FASCIST)
In Spain, General Francisco Franco led the army in the rebellion against the popular Front government of the Spanish Republic in 1936. After a three-year civil war, Franco established a dictatorship that endured until 1975
Pierre Gemayel and the Phalange
Five western educated Christian Arabs founded Al Kata’ib, also known as the Lebanese Phalange, on Nov. 21, 1936. Leader was a pharmacist Pierre Gemayel, Captain of the Lebanese soccer team at the 1936 Berlin Olympics. (Proto-Fascist movement).
Radical Period in Argentina (1916-1930)
Radical Civic Union 1892 – Hipolito Yrigoyen leader. The party was not really radical as the party did not attack economic inequity. The Radicals were middle class reformers with economic interests in the export sector. Both self interest and 19th liberal ideals limited their grasp of socioeconomic issues. Their demands for honest elections and broader power sharing lead to calls for further political mobilization. In 1912 seeing that genuinely leftist forces were forming. Radicals won the election of 1916 and Yrigoyen became president. The Radicals stayed in power until 1930. Foreign pressure, political opponents and their own middle class supporters who wanted power proved to be too difficult for the Radicals to handle.
Local production of previously imported goods
Infamous decade of Argentine History: 1930-1943
A move a way from Democracy but ended a further step toward authoritarian mass mobilization. The Depression ended agrarian elite’s control of the government, fragmented the upper class politically, and allowed the state to assume great autonomy and dominance over society. Politically, the period featured a radical conservative coalition, with the military in the background. In a 1943 coup, however generals took over the government, thus completing the trend toward a dominant state uncontrolled by any broad sector of society.
Juan Peron and the Descamisados
- *Peron encouraged workers to organize under state control and supported them in negotiations. Wages increased, expanding demand for goods and stimulating industrialization. Peron also created a system of pensions and health benefits. In return for these gains, the unions became part of the corporatist apparatus that Peron controlled
- *Peron wan an impressive figure, and his readiness during speeches to pull off the jacket that Argentine politicians had always worn and identify with the shirtless workers (descamisados = shirtless workers) won him acclaim as “Argentina’s number one worker.”
Brazils Old Republic Period: 1889-1930
- *By 1893, however, the new government’s clumsy efforts to stimulate the economy and promote industrialization, coupled with shifts in coffee prices, had produced economic crisis and revolts
- *After 1894, the Old Republic turned regressive. With no political parties in existence, the two richest coffee states, Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais, made a deal to monopolize the presidency. The small size and geographical concentration of the electorate helped make this deal possible. Illiterates could not vote, so the electorate never exceeded 5% of the adult population before World War I. Since education and wealth went together, over half of the electorate lived in just four of twenty states: Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and Rio Grande do Sul
Getlio Vargas (Brazil)
President of Brazil (1930-1945) and then (1951-1954
Mexican Revolution 1910-1920
- *tremendous disagreement among the Mexican people over the dictatorship of President Porfirio Diaz who, all told, stayed in office for thirty one years
- *power was concentrated in the hands of a select few; the people had no power to express their opinions or select their public officials. Wealth was likewise concentrated in the hands of the few, and injustice was everywhere
PRI: Institutional Revolutionary Party
Political party that dominated Mexico's political life for most of the time since its founding in 1929. It was established as a result of a shift of power from political-military chieftains to state party units following the Mexican Revolution 1910 – 20
Lazaro Cardenas, Land reform and Pemex
- PRN, Partido Revolucionario Nacional elected leader in 1930s, strong believer in creating a powerful, unified state and soon became the leader of a radical agrarista faction.
- Transferred foreign owned petroleum companies to Mexican state control, PEMEX
- It harmed Mexico's economy, but above all it was the first significant appropriation of oil capital by a country and the people of Mexico agreed with the reform. When WWII came into play the Mexican oil industry began to flourish again giving Mexico major prosperity.
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