pharm chap 15

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pharm chap 15
2011-02-28 01:22:44
pharm chap

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  1. asprin
    • composed of acetylsalicylic acid
    • inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins
  2. enteric coated asprin
    • spares stomach irratation but not small intestine
    • delayed onset of analgesic effects
  3. misoprostol
    • (cytotec)
    • taken with NSAID
    • inhibits gastric secretion therby reducing damage
  4. omeprazole
    • (prilosec)
    • taken with NSAID
    • inhibits proton pump that is responsible for secreteing gastric acid from muscosal cells into the lumen of the stomach.
    • increases healing and reduces ulcers
  5. ranitidine
    • (zantac)
    • taken with NSAID
    • H2 receptor blockers that decrease GI damage
  6. cimetidine
    • (tagamet)
    • taken with NSAID
    • H2 receptor blockers that decrease GI damage
  7. reye syndrome
    • affects children and teenagers
    • fever, vomiting, liver dysfunction and unresponsiveness
    • *acetomenophen and ibuprofen not associated with reye syndrome
  8. celecoxib
    • (celebrex)
    • NSAID and Cox 2 inhibitor
  9. rofecoxib
    • (vioxx)
    • NSAID and Cox 2 inhibitor
  10. acetomenophen
    • aka paracetamol
    • has equal analgesic and antipyretic effects as NSAIDs
    • does not have antiinflammatory and anticoagulant effects
    • does not irritate upper GI tract
  11. List (4) Pharmalogical properties of NSAIDS
    • 1. for relief of mild to moderate pain
    • 2. decrease inflammation
    • 3. decrease body temp. (assoc. w/ fever)
    • 4. decrease blood clotting (via inhibiting platelet aggregation
  12. Group of lipid like compounds produced by every cell except the RBC that act locally to regulate cell function
  13. Together with PG's they are reffered as eicosanoids.
    Thromboxanes and Leukotrienes
  14. Eicosanoids are derived from what?
    fatty acids knowns as arachidonic acid, which is stored as a phospholipid in the cell membrane
  15. Arachidonic acid is cleaved from the cell membrane by what enzyme?
    Phospholipase A2
  16. Cyclooxygenase (cox) converts arachidonic acid into what? (2)
    • Prostaglandins
    • Thromboxanes
  17. Lipoxygenase converts arachidonic acid into what? (1)
  18. T/F NSAIDs are COX inhibitors but not LOX.
  19. Name (2) PG's involved in inflammation.
    • PGE2
    • LTB4
  20. Increases local blood flow and permeability via potentiating histamine and bradykinin.
  21. Contributes to inflammation and increases vascular permeability
  22. Causes blood clots via platelet aggregation
    TXs, especially TXA2
  23. What are eicosanoids associated with? (7)
    • trauma
    • inflammation
    • pain
    • fever
    • dysmenorrhea
    • thrombus formation
    • other pathologies- CVD, tumors, respiratory dys.
  24. List 2 subtypes (isozymes) of the COX enzyme system.
    • COX- 1
    • COX-2
  25. PG's made from COX-1 enzyme are involved with what? (4)
    • normal cell activity/ homeostasis
    • protecting stomach lining from gastic acid
    • maintaing normal renal function
    • regulating platelet activity (thromboxanes)
  26. Produced primarily in injured cells
    COX-2 enzyme
  27. PG's made from COX-2 enzyme do what?
    mediate pain and inflammation
  28. List (4) clinical applications of asprin like drugs
    Treatment of pain and inflamation, fever, vascular disorders and prevention of cancer.
  29. protects gastric mucosa by:
    inhibiting gastric acid secretion
    increasing stomach mucous
    maintaing blood flow to gastric mucosa
    • PGI2
    • PGE2
  30. T/F COX 2 drugs inhibit platelet function
    false, these PGs are under control of COX-1
  31. Name (2) COX drugs
    • Celecoxib
    • Rofecoxib
  32. Why are COX-2 Drugs associated w/ increased risk of CV events? (2)
    • B/c COX-2 impairs prostacylin production
    • COX-2 does not inhibit thromboxane production
  33. A highly reactive byproduct of NSAIDs.
    N- acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI)
  34. This detoxifies NAPQI by coupling with it.
    glutathione (GHS)
  35. glutathione coverts NAPQI into a nonreactive by product called...?
    mercapturic acid (execreted by the kidneys)