CHEM200 QUIZ2 REVIEW
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Atomic Number (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus
Atoms of the same element with different number
I.E. Carbon (C) has atomic # 6 (All atoms have 6 protons). It may also have 6, 7, or 8 neutrons.
- Therefore relative mass of C is 12,13, or 14.
- carbon-12 (12C), carbon-13 (13C), etc...
Mass Number (A)
Total number of nucleons (protons and neutrons)
- Z=Atomic #
- A=Mass #
- I.E. 4 He 2prtons, 2 neutrons, 2 electrons
- I.E. 23 Na sodium-23 (11 protons and 12 neutrons)
- Average mass of all isotopes
- Units= amu
- I.E. isotopes of O are:
- 16O (99.762%, exact mass 15.99491 amu)
- 17O (0.038%, exact mass 16.99913 amu)
- 18O (0.200%, exact mass 17.99916 amu)
- So, atomic weight of O is
Alkali metals (except Hydrogen)
Alkaline earth metals
- When an atom (electrical neutral) loses or gains electrons
- -Gains becomes negative "anion"
- -Loses becomes positive "cation"
- Held by attraction between opposite charge ions.
- *Usually between metals and non-metals
Smaller radius and larger charge
Greater the attraction
I.E. Down the periodic table the larger the radius
Metal and Non-metal (ionic bond)
- Name the metal (for variable charge metals include Roman numeral) and then name the non-metal changing ending to ideI.E. MgCl2 magnesium chloride
Non-metal and Non-metal (covalent bond... electron sharing)
- use prefixes to indicate # of atoms of first and second non-metal; add ide to the ending
- I.E. P2S5 diphosphorus pentasulfide
Constant Charge Metal Ions
- Groups IA, IIA, and IIIA have only one possible charge:
- +1 for IA, +2 for IIA, and +3 for IIA
Ag +1, Zn +2, and Cd +2
Variable Charge Metal Ions
Ternary Ionic Compounds
Compound that has cation or anion that is a polyatomic ion
- Naming: cation then anion (or vice-versa)
- I.E. KMnO4 Potassium permanganate
- Al2(SO4)3 Aluminum sulfate
- Start with hydrogen (usually aqueous solution)
- I.E. HCl(aq)
H and another element
- Naming: Hydro----ic Acid
- I.E. HBr is hydrobromic acid
Contain polyatomic ion
- 1. anion ends in ate then -----ic acid
- I.E. HNO3 nitric acid
- 2. anion ends in ite then -----ous acid
- I.E. HNO2 nitrous acid
Ionic Compound with exact
number of water molecules
bound to each crystal
- Naming: use prefixes for the number of water molecules
- I.E. MgSO4~7H2O Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate
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