Psychology Midterm 2

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damieon10
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66227
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Psychology Midterm 2
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2011-02-14 01:45:17
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Learning
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Learning
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  1. Learning
    change in an organism’s behavior or thought as a result of experience
  2. Habituation:
    simplest form of learning—process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli
  3. Sensitization
    responding more strongly over time (opposite of habituation)
  4. Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian or respondent conditioning)
    form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response
  5. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    initially neutral stimulus (e.g. tone or light)
  6. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS):
    stimulus that elicits an automatic response (e.g. meatpowder)
  7. Unconditioned Response (UCR):
    automatic response to a nonneutral stimulus that does not need to be learned (e.g. drooling)
  8. Conditioned Response (CR):
    response previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning (e.g drooling, butthis time in reaction to a light or tone)
  9. Acquisition
    learning phase during which a conditioned response is established
  10. Extinction
    gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus
  11. Spontaneous Recovery
    sudden re-emergence of an extinct conditioned response aftera delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulus
  12. Renewal Effect
    sudden re-emergence of a conditioned response following extinction when an animal is returned to the environment in which the conditioned response was acquired
  13. Stimulus Generalization
    process by which conditioned stimuli similar, but not identical to, the original conditioned stimulus elicit a conditioned response
  14. Stimulus Discrimination
    displaying a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus
  15. Higher-order conditioning
    developing a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus by virtue of its association with another conditioned stimulus
  16. Latent Inhibition
    difficulty in establishing a classical conditioning to a conditioned stimulus we’ve repeatedly experienced alone, that is, without the unconditioned stimulus
  17. Fetishism
    sexual attraction to nonliving things
  18. Pseudoconditioning:
    an apparent conditioned response that actually turns out to be an unconditioned response to the conditioned stimulus
  19. Operant Conditioning
    learning controlled by the consequences of the organism’s behavior
  20. Law of Effect
    principle asserting if a stimulus followed by a behavior results in a reward, the stimulus is more likely to elicit a behavior in the future
  21. Insight
    grasping the nature of a problem The “aha” reaction.
  22. Skinner Box
    small animal chamber constructed by Skinner to allow sustained periods of conditioning to be admininstered and behaviors to be recorded unsupervised
  23. Reinforcement
    outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of behavior
  24. Positive Reinforcement
    Positive outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior
  25. Negative Reinforcement
    removal of a negative outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior
  26. Punishment
    outcome or consequence of a behavior that weakens the probability of the behavior
  27. Discriminant stimulus (Sd):
    stimulus associated with the presence of reinforcement
  28. Partial reinforcement:
    only occasional reinforcement of a behavior, resulting in slower extinction than if the behavior had been reinforced
  29. Schedule of reinforcement
    pattern of reinforcing behavior
  30. Fixed Ratio (FR) schedule
    pattern in which we provide reinforcement following a regular number of responses
  31. Fixed Interval (FI) schedule
    pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once following a specified time interval
  32. Variable Ratio (VR) schedule
    pattern in which we provide reinforcement after a specfic number of responses on average, with the number varying randomly
  33. Variable Interval (VI) schedule
    pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response following an average time interval, with the interval varying randomly
  34. Shaping by successive approximations
    conditioning a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behaviors that come closer and closer to the target
  35. Premack Principle
    principle that a less frequently performed behavior can be increased in frequency by reinforcing it with a more frequent behavior
  36. Superstitious Behavior
    actions linked to reinforcement by sheer coincidence
  37. Token economies
    systems, often set up in psychiatric hospitals, for reinforcing appropriate behaviors and extinguishing in appropriate ones
  38. Secondary reinforcers
    neutral objects that people can trade in for more desirable primary reinforcers
  39. Primary reinforcers
    items or outcomes that are naturally pleasurable
  40. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA):
    a set of techniques, based on operant conditioning principles, that relies on the careful measurement of behavior before and after implementing interventions
  41. Two-process theory
    theory that we need both classical and operant conditioning to explain the persistence of anxiety disorders
  42. Sauce béarnaise syndrome or Conditioned Taste Aversion
    the fact that classical conditioning can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food
  43. Equipotentiality
    assumption that an y conditioned stimulus can be associated equally well with any unconditioned stimulus
  44. Preparedness
    evolutionary predisposition to learn some pairings of feared stimuli over others owing to their survival value
  45. Instinctive Drift
    tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated reinforcement

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