Vegetative Morphology 1

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Vegetative Morphology 1
2011-02-14 01:59:52
biology flowers

CA Flora Spring 11... Terms for Duration, Habit, Roots and Leaf Parts, Arrangement and Composition (Smith p. 34-39)
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  1. annual
    Living for one year or less
  2. biennial
    Living for two years, typically flowering and fruiting the second year
  3. caducous
    Applied to plant parts which fall off early or prematurely
  4. deciduous
    Plants which shed all their leaves at the end of each growing season; also applied to plant parts which fall off.
  5. evergreen
    Remaining green during the dormant season, the plants never without leaves
  6. fugaceous
    Withering away or falling off very early
  7. marescent
    Withering or fading, but remaining attached
  8. perennial
    Living for three years or more
  9. persistent
    Remaining attached and unwithered
  10. acaulescent
    More or less stemless, the stem often subterranean
  11. arborescent
    Tree-like, the main trunk relatively short
  12. arboreous
    Trees, the trunk well-developed
  13. caespitose (cespitose)
    Growing in tufts, mat or clumps
  14. caulescent
    Aerial stem or stems evident
  15. clambering
    Spreading over undergrowth or objects, usually without the aid of twining stems or tendrils
  16. bunchgrass
    Grass that comes up from one point and spreads out
  17. climbing
    Ascending upon other plants or objects by means of special structures, such as disc-like stem tips
  18. decumbent
    Stems lying upon the ground, but with their ends turned up
  19. divaricate
    Extremely divergent, more or less at a right angle
  20. divergent
    Broadly spreading
  21. fruticose
    Shrubby, with more than one major stem
  22. geniculate
    Bent sharply, as at the knee
  23. herbs
    Plants with non-woody aerial stems which die back to the ground each year
  24. lianas
    Woody plants with elongate, flexible, non-self-supporting stems
  25. prostrate (procumbent)
    Lying flat upon the ground; typically without adventitious roots
  26. repent (trailing)
    Stems prostrate, creeping or sprawling and often rooting at the node
  27. resupinate
    Inverted because of a 180º twist in a petiole or pedicel
  28. scapose
    Bearing a flower or inflorescence on a leafless flowering stem
  29. shrubs
    Woody perennials with more than one principal stem arising from the groun
  30. spreading
    Oriented outward and more or less diverging from the point of origin
  31. suffruticose (suffrutescent)
    Plants, woody at the base, but herbaceous above
  32. trees
    Woody perennials with a single main stem or trunk
  33. twining
    Coiling around plants or objects as a means of support
  34. vine
    Herbaceous plants with elongate, flexible, non-self-supporting stems
  35. adventitious
    Those roots which arise from any point other than as a portion of the primary root system
  36. aerial
    Those roots occurring above ground
  37. fibrous
    A root system in which all of the roots are of about the same size so that none is clearly dominant, as in many monocots
  38. subterranean
    Roots occurring below the ground
  39. tap
    A root system in which one root is clearly larger than the others, as in many dicots
  40. tuberous
    A tap root which is particularly large and fleshy; not clearly delimited from the tap root
  41. cladophyll (phylloclad)
    A flattened leaf-like stem
  42. stolon (runner)
    A horizontal stem, often rooting at the nodes, which bears ordinary foliage leaves
  43. tendril
    A twining stem, either terminal or arising from the axil of a leaf; tendrils may also be of leaf origin
  44. thorn
    A sharp-pointed stem, either simple or branched; see also spine and prickle
  45. bulb
    An upright series of fleshy overlapping leaf bases attached to a small basal stem, as in the onion
  46. corm
    An upright, hard or fleshy stem surrounded by dry, scaly leaves, an in the gladiolus 'bulb'
  47. rhizome
    A horizontal stem with reduced scaly leaves, as in many grasses
  48. tuber
    An enlarged fleshy tip of an underground stem, as in the Irish potato
  49. turion
    A swollen scaly offshoot of a rhizome
  50. blade (lamina)
    The flattened expanded portion; a few leaves are bladeless
  51. petiole
    The stalk which supports the lamina; if missing the leaf is sessile
  52. stipules
    A pair of appendages located at the base of the petiole where it joins the stem; often short-lived and seen only as stipule scars; if not formed, the leaf is exstipulate
  53. alternate
    One leaf at a node
  54. basal
    At the base of the plant, the internodes being much reduced
  55. cauline
    The leaves of a well-developed stem, as opposed to basal leaves
  56. decussate
    Opposite leaves which alternate at right angles to one another at successive nodes, thereby forming 4 rows of leaves
  57. distichous
    Two-ranked on opposing sides of the stem and in the same plane
  58. equitant
    Leaves folded about one another in two ranks, as in many members of the Iridaceae
  59. fascicled
  60. imbricate
  61. opposite
    Two leaves at a node
  62. rank
    A vertical row of leaves (or flowers)
  63. rosette
    A radiating leaf cluster at or near the base of the plant
  64. rosulate
    In rosettes
  65. whorled (verticillate)
    Three or more leaves at a node
  66. lobed
    Indented about one-fourth to almost half way to the midrib or base of the blade
  67. cleft
    Indented about half way to the midrib or base of the blade
  68. parted
    Indented nearly all the way to the midrib or the base of the blade
  69. divided
    Indented to the midrib or vase of the blade