Basics of Keyboard History
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When was the Baroque period?
When was the Classical Period?
When was the Romantic Perod?
When was the Contemporary Period?
List the five characteristics of Baroque music.
- Polyphonic Texture
- Use of Ornamentation
- Improvisation (Figured Bass)
- Dance Suite
- Terrace Dynamics (for harpsichord, clavichord, and organ)
Describe polyphonic texture used in the Baroque Period.
- two or more separate voices
- voices interchanged
- melodies passed between parts
- all parts of equal importance
Describe use of ornamentation during the Baroque Period.
- composers included trills, mordents, etc.
- performers should know how to play the ornaments
- performers could add their own ornaments at appropiate places
Describe improvisation in the Baroque Period.
- performers often played cadenzas, entire sections of music that they created by themselves
- also used figured bass, an outline of the chord progression to improvise harmonies
- added ornaments
Describe Dances of the Baroque Suites.
composition of many different dancees, all in the same key
Describe terraced dynamics and why they were used during the Baroque Period.
- used because instruments like the harpsichord, clavichord, and organ were used instead of the piano
- terraced dynamics are when dynamics increase or decrease by sections, not gradually
- piano was perfected late in the period
Where was Arcangelo Corelli from and when was he born and when did he die?
What positions did Arcangelo Corelli's hold?
- directer of music to Cardinal Pamphili
- director of music to Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni
What were Arcangelo Corelli's compositions?
- several volumes of chamber music (trio sonatas and solo violin sonatas)
- famous for Christmas Concerto
What was Arcangelo Corelli's compositional style?
- key changes and dissonance
- innovative for his time
Where and when was Henry Purcell born and when did he die?
What positions did Henry Purcell hold?
- organist for Westminster Abbey
- organist for Chapel Royal
What were Henry Purcell's types of works?
instrumental music, choral anthems, four operas, longer choral works with orchestra
Where was Jean Phillip Rameau from and when was he born and when did he die?
What positions did Jean Phillip Rameau hold?
organist in Avignon, Clermont, Paris, Notre Dame, and Clermont Cathedral (France)
What type of compositions did Jean Phillip Rameau compose?
harpsichord works, operas, ballets, stage works, and instrumental chamber music
What theoretical works did Jean Phillip Rameau compose?
Traied de l'harmonie, Nouveau systeme de musique
Name eight other Baroque composers (besides Jean Phillip Rameau, Henry Purcell, and Arcangelo Correlli) their places of birth, and their dates of birth and death.
- J.S. Bach- Germany 1685-1750
- Girolamo Frescobaldi- Italy 1583-1643
- G.F. Handel- Germany 1685-1760
- Johann Philipp Kirnberger- Germany 1721-1783
- Domenco Scarlatti- Italy 1685-1757
- Antonio Soler- Spain 1729-1783
- Georg Philipp Telemann- Germany 1681-1767
- Antonio Vivaldi- Italy 1678-1741
List the four characteristics of music from the Classical Period.
- homophonic texture
- cadence points usually obvious
- alberti bass
- sonata and sonatina forms
Describe homophonic texture used during the Classical Period.
had an obvious melody with accompaniment
Describe how cadence points were usually obvious in the Classical Period.
- harmonic structure of Classical music was clear
- cadences were obvious- harmonically and by the use of rests at the end of of sections
Describe Alberti Bass.
- common type of accompaniment for left hand in Classicla Period
- repeated pattern: CGEG CGEG do so mi so do so mi so
Describe Sonata and Sonatina forms.
- these forms were developed
- specific type of composition
When and where was Ludwig van Beethoven born and when did he die?
What types of compositions did Ludwig van Beethoven compose?
- string quartets
- piano concertos, trios, and sonatas
- works for solo instruments
What music was Beethoven influenced by?
influenced by events in the French Revolution
Who did Beethoven study with?
Franz Josef Haydn
Where was Franz Josef Haydn from and when was he born and when did he die?
What was Franz Josef Haydn's education like?
studied at the Vienna Choir School
What musical form did Haydn develop?
- standard four-movement format for symphonies
- Sonata Allegro form
What positions did Franz Josef Haydn hold?
music director to Prince Esterhazy
What types of works did Haydn compose?
- piano sonatas
- string quartets
- over 100 symphonies
What were Haydn's nicknames and why?
Father of the Symphony or Papa Haydn because he composed over 100 symphonies
Where was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born and when was he born and when did he die?
Describe Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's childhood.
- was a child prodigy
- performed and travelled throughout Europe
- began improvising and composing before the age of five
What types of compositions did Mozart compose?
- piano sonata and concertos
- sonatas and conertos for other instruments
- Requiem for choir and orchestra
What positions did Mozart hold?
music director for the Archbishop of Salzburg
Name for other Classical composers (besides Mozart, Beethoven, and Haydn) their places of birth, and their dates of birth and death.
- Muzio Clementi- Italy 1752-1832
- Carl Czerny- Austria 1791-1857
- Anton Diabelli- Austria 1781-1858
- Frederich Kuhlau- Germany 1786-1832
List the four characteristics of music from the Romantic Period.
- Programme Music
- More complicated harmonies
- Lyric melodies
- More complicated rhythms
Describe Programme Music of the Romantic Period.
- titles in the music of this period reflect the mood of the piece
- much of the music was written about hings, people, places, or feelings
Describe how harmonies were more complicated in the Romantic Period.
- complser began to add more colorful notes to their chords
- used more chromaticism
- stryed from the tonal scale
Describe Lyric melodies of the Romantic Period.
- melodies are lovely
- singing melodis
- these songs have become favorites among music lovers
Describe how rhythms became more complicated in the Romantic Period.
- contains syncopated rhythms
- complicated sixteenth note patterns
- dotted rhythms
- cross rhythms
Where and when was Johannes Brahms born and when did he die?
What are some of Johannes Brahms works?
- two piano concertos and sonatas
- piano quartets and quintets
- the Requiem
- other choral works
- short piano pieces
- clarinet sonatas
With which composers was Brahms associated with?
Liszt and Schumann
When and where was Franz Liszt born and when did he die?
Talk about Franz Liszt's childhood.
- receive financial assistance based on talent and studied with Czerny and Salier
- child prodigy; travelled and performed
What positions did Franz Liszt hold?
Kappelmeister Extraordinary in Weimar (1848)
What types of compositions did Franz Liszt write?
- piano pieces: sonata, Hungarian Rhapsodies, consolatons, ballades, polonaises, Transcendental Etudes, and more
- piano concertos
- symphonic poems
- transcriptions of works by otheres
- choral works including oratorios
What was Franz Liszt inspired by?
his homeland (Hungary)
Where was Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky born and when was he born and when did he die?
What was Tchaikovsky's education?
attended the St. Petersburg School of Jurisprudence from ages 10-19
What positions did Tchaikovsky hold?
taught at Moscow Conservatory
What types of compositions did Tchaikovsky write?
- symphonic poems
- ballets (i.e. Swan Lake and The Nutcracker)
- piano concertos
- violin concerto
What other contributions did Tchaiskovsky give to music?
wrote textbooks i.e. Guide to the Practical Study of Harmony
What was Tchaikovsky influenced by?
influenced by the folk music with which he was raised
Name eight other Romantic composers (besides Tchaikovsky, Liszt, and Brahms), their places of birth, and their dates of birth and death.
- Frederick Chopin- Poland 1810-1849
- Antonin Dvorak- Prague 1841-1904
- John Field- Ireland 1782-1837
- Edvard Grieg- Norway 1843-1907
- Stephen Heller- Hungary 1813-1888
- Felix Bartholdy-Mendelssohn- Germany 1809-1847
- Franz Schubert- Austria 1797-1828
- Robert Schumann- Germany 1810-1856
What is impressionism and when was it?
- sometimes used to describe music of a few late 19th and early century composers (especially Debussy and Ravel)
- borrowed from the painting of Monet, Degas, and Renoir
name some of the characteristics of Impressionistic music
unclear tonalities, non-metric rhythms, tends to flow, is musically "blureed", whole tone scales, pentatonic scales, parallel chords, augmented triads, ostinato figures
Dates of birth and death of Claude Debussy and his country of birth.
Claude Debussy's education:
- no formal music training until 1871- Paris Conservatory
- studied compositiion with Guiraud
How did Claude Debussy make his living?
as a professional composer and conductor
What types of compositions did Claude Debussy write?
- piano preludes and etudes
- orchestral works
- Children's Corner suite for piano
When and where was Maurice Ravel born and when did he die?
What was Maurice Ravel's education?
attended Paris Conservatory
What was Maurice Ravel known for besides music?
beautifful orchestrations of his own and others' works
What types of compositions did Maurice Ravel write?
ballets, orchestral works, piano works
When and where was Charles Tomlinson Griffes borne and when did he die?
Talk about Charles Tomlinson Griffes's education.
- studied piano with Mary Selna Broughton
- studied at Berlin at the Stern Conservatory
What positions did Griffes hold?
taught at the Hackley School in Tarrytown, NY
What types of compositions did Griffes write?
- chamber music
- stage works
- a piano sonata
- several short pieces for piano
What was Griffes influenced by?
he was influenced by traditional Japanese songs
List the nine characteristics of music from the Contemporary Period.
- major and minor tonalities avoided
- quartal harmnoy
- irregular and changing meters
- polyphonic texture
- neo-classic writing
- serial or twelve-tone music
Describe what was used in place of major and minor tonalities in the Contemporary Period.
they use non-tonal (not Major or minor keys) harmonies
Describe quartal harmonies used in the Contemporary Period.
use of 4ths to make up chords, rather than thirds
the use of two different keys at the same time.
the use of many different keys at the same time.
no specific key used
Describe irregular and changing meters used during the contemporary Period.
- composers often use uncommon time signatures (i.e 5/4 or 7/4)
- change the time signature during the music (complex meter)
Describe polyphonic texture used during the Contemporary Period.
harmonies become the result of the entanglinng of the melodic lines
Describe neo-classic writing.
composers of the Contemporary Period often write Sonata, Sonatinas, or other forms which were common in the Classical Period
Describe Serial or Twelve-Tone Music.
- the twelve tones of the chromatic scale are arrange in a fixed style, or series
- the entire piece will be based on the intervals of the series
What is the Prime in Serial Music?
original series, usually presented first in the compositon
What is the Inversion in Serial Music?
created by inverting all the intervals of the prime (for example, P4 up becomes P4 down)
What is the Retrograde in Serial Music?
created by reversing the prime (backwards)
What is the Retrograde Inversion in Serial Music?
is created by inverting the intervals of the retrograde
When and where was Aaron Copland born and when dd he die?
What was Aaron Copland's education?
began piano study at age thirteen
What positions did Aaron Copland hold?
- taught at New School for Social Research in NY
- taught composition at Tanglewood
What was Aaron Copland's style?
use of neo-classic style combined with jazz elements
What compositions did Aaron Copland write?
- a piano concerto
- varied works for solo instruments and piano
What books did Aaron Copland write?
- The New Music
- Music and Imagination
When and where was Charles Ives born and when did he die?
What was Charles Ives's education?
- taught the fundamentals of music by his father
- studied with Horatio Parker at Yale
What was Charles Ives's style of writing?
- highly innovative
- used bitonality, atonality, and quartertones
- use of two different and clashing meters at once
What were some of Charles Ives's works?
- many songs- well known tunes or hymns arranged in 20th century style
- piano sonatas
- orchestral works
- chamber music
Where is George Gershwin from and when was he born and when did he die?
What was George Gershwin's education?
- studied piano with Charles Hambitzer
- studied composition with Henry Cowell and Joseph Schillinger
What was George Gershwin's style?
known for combining "classical " forms with popular (jazz) style
What were some of George Gershwin's works?
- Rhapsody in Blue for paino and orchestra
- An American in Paris for orchestra
- the opera Porgy and Bess
- piano pieces
Name eight other Contemporary composers, their places of birth, and their dates of birth and death.
- Bela Bartok- Hungary 1881-1945
- Benjamin Britten- England 1913-1976
- Norman Dellla-Joio- U.S.A. 1913-present
- Dmitri Kabalevsky- Russia 1904-1987
- Francis Poulenc- France 1899-1963
- Sergei Prokofiev- Russia 1891-1953
- Dmiti Shostakovich- Russia 1906-1975
- Igor Stravinsky- Russia 1882-1971
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