Botany Exam 1
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What are the Primary Metabolites?
- Nuceic Acids
What are the Secondary Metabolites?
- Alkaloids - Drugs
- Terpenoids - Oils, Waxes, Poisens, Latex
- Phenolics - Flavinoids, and colors
What is the structure of the Cell Wall?
- (Middle Lamella, Primary Wall, Secondary Wall, Plasmodemata ,Pits)
What is the structure of the Nucleus?
- Nuclear Encelope, Nucleoplasm, Chromatin, Nucleous
What are the parts in the Cytoplasm?
- Plasma Membrane, Cytoskeleton, Plastids, mitochondria, peroxisomes, vacuoles, s.e.r, r.e.r, golgi body, vesicles, microtubules, filaments, ribosomes, oil bodies
What is a plastid?
- An organelle that can replicate on its own
- Contains single copy of DNA
- Reproduce by fission
- Contain Chloroplasts, Chromoplasts, Leukoplasts, Amyoplasts
- Derived from Proplastids
What is an Etioplast?
Etioplasts are chloroplasts that have not been exposed to light. They are usually found in flowering plants (Angiosperms) grown in the dark. If a plant is kept out of light for several days, its normal chloroplasts will actually convert into etioplasts. Etioplasts lack active pigment and can technically be considered leucoplasts. High concentrations of etioplasts will cause leaves to appear yellow rather than green.
What does the Prolamella body develop into?
What are Chloroplasts?
Organelle in the cytoplasm that converts light energy into food (photosynthesis)
What are Chromoplasts?
- Organelle in the cytoplasm that contains oil bodies, and pigments (yellow, oj, red)
- Can develop from old chloroplasts
What are Leukoplasts?
- Organelle in the cytoplasm that lacks pigments
- Appears "amoeboid" in epidermal layer
- Also synthesizes/stores starch.
- Can turn into Amyloplasts, Elaioplasts, and Protienoplasts
What are Amyloplasts?
- Organelle in the cytoplasm that stores starch
- Appears clear unless dyed with Iodine.
What is the role of Peroxisomes?
- They are an organelle that is closely associated with mitochondria and chloroplats
- A form of respiration that doesnt work well
- They break down long FA chains
What is the role of Vacuoles?
- May contain Druess or Raphides
- Bound by a Tonoplast membrane
What is the Endomembrane System?
- Does not include Mitochondria and ChloroplastsIncludes Nuclear Envelope, ER (SER & RER), Golgi Apparatus, Vacuoles, Lysosomes, Vesicles
What makes up the Nuclear Envelope?
- Outer Membrane
- Inner Membrane
What makes up Chromatin?
What role does SER play in the endomembrane system?
Packages protiens to ship them to the golgi apparatus
What role does RER play in the endomembrane system?
- Location for ribosomes to produce protiens
- Helps the newly formed protiens adjust to their correct 3D shape
- Decides where to ship the new protiens to
What role does Golgi Apparatus play in the endomembrane system?
- Futher modifies new protiens and prepares them for shipment to other locations in the cell or to be excreted.
- Modifies, Sorts, and pakages protiens and lipids
What are the polymers of the cell wall?
- Cellulose - Rods
- Hemicellulose - Threads
- Pectins - Glue
- Glycoprotiens - ID protiens
- Lignin - Strength
- Cutin & Subirn & Waxes - Protective Coating
What is the Plasmodemada?
Location in the cell wall that is thin enough for easy cell communication and shareing of water and minerals
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