Botany Exam 1

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Botany Exam 1
2011-02-14 15:49:16
Botany Exam

Botany Exam 1
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  1. What are the Primary Metabolites?
    • Carbs
    • Lipids
    • Nuceic Acids
    • Protiens
  2. What are the Secondary Metabolites?
    • Alkaloids - Drugs
    • Terpenoids - Oils, Waxes, Poisens, Latex
    • Phenolics - Flavinoids, and colors
  3. What is the structure of the Cell Wall?
    • (Middle Lamella, Primary Wall, Secondary Wall, Plasmodemata ,Pits)
  4. What is the structure of the Nucleus?
    • Nuclear Encelope, Nucleoplasm, Chromatin, Nucleous
  5. What are the parts in the Cytoplasm?
    • Plasma Membrane, Cytoskeleton, Plastids, mitochondria, peroxisomes, vacuoles, s.e.r, r.e.r, golgi body, vesicles, microtubules, filaments, ribosomes, oil bodies
  6. What is a plastid?
    • An organelle that can replicate on its own
    • Contains single copy of DNA
    • Reproduce by fission
    • Contain Chloroplasts, Chromoplasts, Leukoplasts, Amyoplasts
    • Derived from Proplastids
  7. What is an Etioplast?
    Etioplasts are chloroplasts that have not been exposed to light. They are usually found in flowering plants (Angiosperms) grown in the dark. If a plant is kept out of light for several days, its normal chloroplasts will actually convert into etioplasts. Etioplasts lack active pigment and can technically be considered leucoplasts. High concentrations of etioplasts will cause leaves to appear yellow rather than green.
  8. What does the Prolamella body develop into?
  9. What are Chloroplasts?
    Organelle in the cytoplasm that converts light energy into food (photosynthesis)
  10. What are Chromoplasts?
    • Organelle in the cytoplasm that contains oil bodies, and pigments (yellow, oj, red)
    • Can develop from old chloroplasts
  11. What are Leukoplasts?
    • Organelle in the cytoplasm that lacks pigments
    • Appears "amoeboid" in epidermal layer
    • Also synthesizes/stores starch.
    • Can turn into Amyloplasts, Elaioplasts, and Protienoplasts
  12. What are Amyloplasts?
    • Organelle in the cytoplasm that stores starch
    • Appears clear unless dyed with Iodine.
  13. What is the role of Peroxisomes?
    • They are an organelle that is closely associated with mitochondria and chloroplats
    • A form of respiration that doesnt work well
    • Photorespiration
    • They break down long FA chains
  14. What is the role of Vacuoles?
    • May contain Druess or Raphides
    • Bound by a Tonoplast membrane
  15. What is the Endomembrane System?
    • Does not include Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
    • Includes Nuclear Envelope, ER (SER & RER), Golgi Apparatus, Vacuoles, Lysosomes, Vesicles
  16. What makes up the Nuclear Envelope?
    • Outer Membrane
    • Inner Membrane
  17. What makes up Chromatin?
    • Heterochromatin
    • Euchromatin
  18. What role does SER play in the endomembrane system?
    Packages protiens to ship them to the golgi apparatus
  19. What role does RER play in the endomembrane system?
    • Location for ribosomes to produce protiens
    • Helps the newly formed protiens adjust to their correct 3D shape
    • Decides where to ship the new protiens to
  20. What role does Golgi Apparatus play in the endomembrane system?
    • Futher modifies new protiens and prepares them for shipment to other locations in the cell or to be excreted.
    • Modifies, Sorts, and pakages protiens and lipids
  21. What are the polymers of the cell wall?
    • Cellulose - Rods
    • Hemicellulose - Threads
    • Pectins - Glue
    • Glycoprotiens - ID protiens
    • Lignin - Strength
    • Cutin & Subirn & Waxes - Protective Coating
  22. What is the Plasmodemada?
    Location in the cell wall that is thin enough for easy cell communication and shareing of water and minerals