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Describe the contributions of Lightner Witmer to the field of clinical psychology.
In 1896, Witmer established the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania. He named the field "clinical psychology" and was the first to teach a specific course in clinical psychology. In 1907, he founded the first journal in clinical psychology called The Psychological Clinic.
Briefly compare and contrast experimental and correlational research methods.
- Experimental method is a research strategy that allows the researcher to determine cause-and-effect relationships.
- Correlational methods are statistical methods that allow us to determine whether one variable is related to another but doesn't allow us to draw inferences about cause-and-effect relationships
Why is tolerance for ambiguity important for the contemporary clinical psychologist?
Clinical psychology has been bombarded by conflicting claims of success by cognitive-behaviorists on one hand and psychodynamic psychologists on the other. Also, academians have criticized it as being too applied and by colleagues as being too abstract or scientific.
Describe the historical and current controversy surrounding the "scientist-practitioner" model.
Critics have called it a philosophy of training rather than a particular training model, and some have criticized it as too strongly research-oriented and too long; others claim that it allows some service areas to be neglected.
How has the history of psychological assessment been influenced by the U.S. military?
WWI increased the need to screen and classify military recruits. Five APA members were appointed by the Medical Department of the Army and designed the Army Alpha test, a verbal scale, and the Army Beta test, a nonverbal version, to measure intelligence levels. Success with intelligence tests was responsible for the subsequent movement into personality assessment.
Briefly summarize the influence of Eysenck's landmark article criticizing psychotherapy.
His scathing report on the ineffectiveness of psychotherapy alarmed many and inspired others to conduct research designed to prove him wrong.
Briefly describe the major components of a typical doctoral program in clinical psychology.
Typically includes training in assessment, research, diagnosis, and therapeutic skills, along with an internship. All programs seek to build the student's clinical skills through exposure to clinical practica. The student must also develop research competence and eventually do an internship which is the capstone of the student's previous experiences.
Briefly discuss the three historical trends that contributed to the emergence of Clinical Psychology as a profession.
- Founding of the APA in 1892 with G. Hall as its first president.
- Establishment of the first psychological clinic in 1896 and the founding of the first journal in clinical psychology in 1907 by Witmer.
- Iowa Psychological Clinic was started in 1908 and the establishment of the Juvenile Psychopathic Institute in Chicago in 1909.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the clinical scientist model of training?
- Advantages include (1) training of students for careers in clinical science research, (2) advance clinical science research and theory, (3) development and access to resources and opportunities, (4) broad application of clinical science to human problems in responsible ways, and (5) timely dissemination of clinical science to policy-making groups, psychologists, and other scientists.
- Disadvantages include a less of an emphasis on the development of clinical skills to treat patients.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the case study method?
- Strengths include (1) descriptions of rare or unusual phenomena or distinctive methods of interviewing, (2) disconfirming "universally" known information, (3) generating testable hypotheses.
- Weaknesses include that it is (1) difficult to use individual cases to develop universal laws or behavioral principles and (2) one study cannot lead to cause-effect conclusions.
What is the function of each axis of DSM-IV-TR?
- Axis I - Clinical disorders or other relevant conditions
- Axis II - Personality disorders and mental retardation
- Axis III - General medical conditions
- Axis IV - Psychosocial and environmental problems
- Axis V - Global assessment of functioning
Describe the diathesis-stress model of psychopathology.
It's not wedded to one school of thought and can incorporate biological, psychological, and environmental factors. A diathesis is the vulnerability or predisposition while an environmental stressor is a biological or psychological factor. Both factors are necessary to produce the disorder in question.