theory II

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theory II
2011-02-14 18:05:17
Exam one review

module one
Show Answers:

  1. Inflammatory response to dental biofilm
    initial lesion
  2. increased inflammatory response
    early lesion
  3. progression from early lesion
    established lesion
  4. extension of inflammation
    advanced lesion
  5. which lesion occurs within 2-4 days of bacterial accumulation; white blood cells migrate to junctional epithelium; increase flow of gingival sulcus fluid; early breakdown of collagen of gingival fiber groups; and fliud fills spaces in connective tissue?
    • initial lesion
    • inflammatory response to dental biofilm
  6. Which lesion has no clinical evidence of change in earliest phase; but later might show light marginal redness with enlargement?
    • initial lesion
    • inflammatory response
  7. Which lesion does; biofilm become older and thicker (7-14 days); fluid, lymphocytes, and neutrophils w/few plasma cells into connective tissue; breakdown of collagen fiber supporte; epithelial extensions and rete ridges form.
    • early lesion
    • increase inflammatory response
  8. which lesion shows early signs of gingivitis becoming apparent with slt gingival enlargement; it is reversible if biofilm is controlled and inflammation reverese, helathy tissue may be restored; and susceptibility of individuals for this lesion varies
    • early lesion
    • increased inflammatory response
  9. Which lesion has; fluid and leukocyte migration into tissues and sulcus increase; plasma cells related to area of chronic inflammation; pocket epithelium forms-proliferation of junctional and sulcular epithelium continues to try to wall out inflammation, pocket epithelium is more permeable, early pocket formation; connective tissue fibers lost.
    • established lesion
    • progression from early lesion
  10. which lesions clinical appearance is clear evidence of inflammation, present with marginal redness, bleeding on probing, and spongy marginal gingiva, later chronic fibrosis develops?
    • established lesion
    • progression from early lesion
  11. which lesion has subgingival biofilm which contain microorganisms containing irritants; alveolar bone destruction-inflammation spreads through the loose connective tissue beside the blood vessels to the alveolar bone, infection enters bone, inflammation spreads through the bone marrow and out into the periodontal ligament
    • advanced lesion
    • extension of inflammation
  12. What are the 5 steps in progression of connective tissue of the advanced lesion?
    • CT fibers below JE are destroyed, and epithelium migrates along root surface
    • coronal portion of JE is detached
    • exposed cementum becomes altered by inflammatory products
    • diseased cementum has a thin superficial layer of endotoxins
    • without treatment the pocket becomes progressively deepened
  13. The following characteristics describe what lesion?
    pocket formation; mobility; bone loss; periodontitis
    persistence of chronic inflammatory process; plasma cells predominate
    JE migrates more; lesion extends through CT
    • advanced lesion
    • extension of inflammation
  14. Inflammation of the gingiva characterized clinically by changes in color, gingival form, position, surface appearance, and presence of bleeding or exudate.
    • Case Type I
    • gingival disease
  15. progression of the gingival inflammation into the deeper periodontal structure and alveolar bone crest, with slight bone loss. There is usually a slight loss of connective tissue at attachment and alveolar bone.
    • Case type II
    • early periodontitis
  16. A more advanced stage of the preceding condition, with increased destruction of the periodontal structures and noticeable loss of bone support, possibley accompanied by an increase in tooth mobility. There may be furctaion involvement in multirooted teeth.
    • Case type III
    • moderate periodontitis
  17. Further progression of periodontitis with major loss of alveolar bone support usually accompanied by increased tooth mobility. furcation involvement in multirooted teeth
    • case type IV
    • advanced periodontitis
  18. a diseased sulcus
  19. a pocket formed by gingival enlargement without apical migration of the junctional epithelium
    gingival pocket
  20. the margin of the gingiva has moved toward the incisal or occlusal surface without the deeper periodontal structures involved; in what type of pocket?
  21. the tooth wall is enamel in which type of pocket?
  22. all gingival pockets are _________, that is the base of the pocket is coronal to the crest of the alveolar bone
  23. a pocket formed as a result of disease or degeneration that caused the junctional epithelium to migrate apically along the cementum.
    periodontal pocket
  24. the tooth wall is cementum, or partly enamel and partly cementum in which type of pocket?
  25. true or false. The periodontal pocket may be supra or intra-bony
  26. a pocket is narrow, and the pocket epithelium lining is adjacent to, and follows the _______ ___ ___ ________
    contour of the tooth
  27. When calculus deposits are present, the pocket wall follows the _____ ___ ____ __________
    contour of the calculus
  28. What are 5 things that may be inside a pocket in contact with the tooth surface on one side, and with the surface of the pocket epithelium on the other?
    • microorganisms and products: enzymes, endotoxins
    • gingival or sulcus fluid
    • desquamated epithelium cells
    • leukocytes, numbers increase with inflammation
    • purulent exudate: leukocytes, microorganisms, serum
  29. What happens as a result of continuing action of irritants and destructive agents from dental biofilm?
    pocket deepens
  30. What are the first 3 pocket developement factors?
    • periodontal ligament fibers become detached, and JE migrates apically
    • cementum becomes exposed
    • physical, structural, and chemical changes alter the cementum
  31. describe 4 surface changes that may occur in the event of pocket development
    • hypermineralization of cementum
    • demineralization
    • calculus formation
    • dental biofilma and debris collection
  32. the clinical attachment level and bone loss have extended into the area between the roots of a multirooted tooth
    furcation involvement
  33. early beginning involvement. A probe can enter the furca area, and the anatomy of the roots on either side can be felt by moving the probe from side to side
    class I furcation
  34. moderate involvement. bone has been destroyed to an extent that permits a probe to enter the furcation area but not to pass through between the roots
    class II furcation
  35. sever involvement. A probe can be passed between the roots through the entire furcation
    class III furcation
  36. Same as the previous class, with exposure from gingival recession, especially after periodontal therapy
    class IV furcation
  37. What is the primary etiologic factor in the development of gingival and periondontal diseases?
    dental biofilm
  38. true or false. dental biofilm cannot be removed completely by self-cleansing
  39. factors created by professionals during pt treatment or neglect of treatment. these are significant contributing factors in disease development
    iatrogenic causes
  40. can factors such as mastication, saliva, the tongue, cheeks, lips, oral habits, and personal biofilm control procedures contribute to disease development?
  41. a factor that is the actual cause of a disease or condition (like biofilm)
    etiologic factor
  42. a factor that renders a person susceptible to a disease or condition (like smoking)
    predisposing factor
  43. a factor that lends assistance to, supplements, or adds to a condition or disease (like meds, or diabetes)
    contributing factor
  44. an exposure that increases the probability that disease will occur (high BP, or family history of caries)
    risk factor
  45. What are 4 dental factors that contribute to disease development?
    • tooth surface irregularities
    • tooth contour
    • tooth position
    • dental prostheses
  46. What 3 gingiva factors contribute to disease deveolpment?
    • position
    • size and contour
    • effect of mouth breathing
  47. what are 2 'other' factors that contribute to disease development?
    • personal oral care
    • diet and eating habits
  48. list 5 risk factors for periodontal disease
    • effect of certain drugs
    • tobacco
    • diabetes
    • osteoporosis
    • psychosocial factors
  49. what factors for periodontal disease require a greater effort for the control of periodontal problems?
    • genetic disposition
    • congenital immunodeficiencies
    • systemic conditions
  50. What are 3 drugs that lead to gingival enlargement?
    • phenytoin - control seizures
    • cyclosporin - immunosuppressant
    • nifedipine - angina and ventricular arrhythmias
  51. true or false. an association with periodontal disease and all forms of tobacco has been shown, especially cigarette smokers.
  52. true or false. pts with diabetes are at increased susceptibility to periodontal infections. periodontal treatment improves the metabolic control of diabetes.
    both are true
  53. stress is considered a factor in the etiology of ________ ________ _________
    necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG)