Chapter 19, 40-1

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ambermarie123
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66372
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Chapter 19, 40-1
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2011-02-14 20:56:12
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Biology Test Feb
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Bacteria and Viruses
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  1. single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus
    prokaryote
  2. rod-shaped prokaryotes
    bacilli
  3. spherica prokaryotes
    cocci
  4. spiral and corkscrew shaped prokaryotes
    spirilla
  5. organism that must take in organic molecules for both energy and carbon
    chemoheterotroph
  6. organism that is hotosynthetic but needs organic compounds as a carbon source
    photoheterotroph
  7. organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions
    chemoautotroph
  8. organism that requires a constant supply of oxygen in order to live
    obligate aerobe
  9. an organism that cannot live in the presence of oxygen
    obligate anaerobe
  10. organism that can survive with or without oxygen
    faculative anerobe
  11. type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter alleles
    binary fission
  12. form of sexual reproduction in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information
    conjugation
  13. type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick, internal wall that enclpses its DNA and a portion of a cytoplasm
    endospore
  14. converting nitrogeous gas into ammonia
    nitrogen fixation
  15. particles of nucleic acid, protien and in some casees lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells
    virus
  16. protien coat of viruses
    capsid
  17. viruses that infect bacteria
    bacteriophage
  18. host cell is used and destroyed
    lytic cycle
  19. host cell makes copies of the virus indefinately
    lysogenic cycle
  20. viral DNA that is embedded in the host's DNA
    prophage
  21. viruses that contain RNA as their genetic information
    retrovirus
  22. disease causing agents
    Pathogen
  23. preparation of weakened or killed pathogens
    vaccine
  24. compounds that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria
    antibiotics
  25. single stranded RNA molecules that have no surrounding capsids
    viroids
  26. particles that contain no DNA or RNA
    prions
  27. any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
    disease
  28. disease-causing agents
    pathogens
  29. says that infectious diseases are caused my microoganisms of different types, usually called germs
    germ theory of disease
  30. series of guidelines used to identify the microoganism that causes a specific disease
    Koch's postulates
  31. animals that carry pathogens from person to person
    vectors
  32. compounds that kill bacterial without harming the cells of the human or animal hosts
    antibiotics
  33. Bacteria cause disease by....
    releasing toxons or breaking down cells
  34. Bacteria that break down dead organic matter...
    make nutrients available to other organisms.
  35. Which group includes some members that can carry out photosynthesis?
    bacteria but not viruses
  36. In any lysogenic infection, the viral DNA...
    is inserted into the host DNA.
  37. The life cycle of a lytic virus does NOT involve...
    lysogenic infection
  38. An acellular object that contains DNA or RNA and is protected by a protein coat is called a...
    virus
  39. Bacteria can be identified by the following characteristics EXCEPT
    the presence of a nucleus.
  40. Important differences between archaebacteria and eubacteria include all of the following EXCEPT
    presence of capsid proteins
  41. Bacteria play an important role in ecosystems as
    producers and decomposers
  42. What causes disease?
    agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi; materials in the enviornment, and inheritance
  43. How are infectious diseases transmitted?
    from one person to another through coughing, sneezing or physical contace; through contaminated water or food, infected animals
  44. Who discovered viruses? What did he discover?
    Wendell Stanley, Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  45. How are viruses classified?
    • shape
    • genome (genetic material)
    • type of organism it infects
  46. A bactripohage infects ________.
    bacteria
  47. An animal virus infects _______.
    animals
  48. A plant virus infects ______.
    plants
  49. virus attaches to host cell, injects its nucleic acid, destroys host DNA, makes copies of itself, breaks out of cell
    Lytic Infection (Virulent)
  50. virus injects its DNA, viral DNA is incorporated into the host DNA, viral DNA is replicated with the host DNA, can become lytic
    Lysogenic Cycle (Latent)
  51. Viruses are nonliving because....
    they can't survive on their own; don't fit the criteria for life
  52. A ___________ has a genome of RNA and therefore must change into DNA before it can infect anything.
    retrovirus
  53. changing of RNA to DNA
    reverse transcriptase
  54. A prophage is produced during the _________ cycle.
    lysogenic
  55. DNA of a virus
    prophage
  56. Viruses always have...
    • DNA or RNA
    • Capsid
  57. spherical shaped bacteria
    coccus
  58. rod shaped bacteria
    Bacillus
  59. herical shaped, spiral bacteria
    Spirullum

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