Chapter 19, 40-1
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Chapter 19, 40-1
Biology Test Feb
Bacteria and Viruses
single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus
spiral and corkscrew shaped prokaryotes
organism that must take in organic molecules for both energy and carbon
organism that is hotosynthetic but needs organic compounds as a carbon source
organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions
organism that requires a constant supply of oxygen in order to live
an organism that cannot live in the presence of oxygen
organism that can survive with or without oxygen
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter alleles
form of sexual reproduction in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information
type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick, internal wall that enclpses its DNA and a portion of a cytoplasm
converting nitrogeous gas into ammonia
particles of nucleic acid, protien and in some casees lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells
protien coat of viruses
viruses that infect bacteria
host cell is used and destroyed
host cell makes copies of the virus indefinately
viral DNA that is embedded in the host's DNA
viruses that contain RNA as their genetic information
disease causing agents
preparation of weakened or killed pathogens
compounds that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria
single stranded RNA molecules that have no surrounding capsids
particles that contain no DNA or RNA
any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
says that infectious diseases are caused my microoganisms of different types, usually called germs
germ theory of disease
series of guidelines used to identify the microoganism that causes a specific disease
animals that carry pathogens from person to person
compounds that kill bacterial without harming the cells of the human or animal hosts
Bacteria cause disease by....
releasing toxons or breaking down cells
Bacteria that break down dead organic matter...
make nutrients available to other organisms.
Which group includes some members that can carry out photosynthesis?
bacteria but not viruses
In any lysogenic infection, the viral DNA...
is inserted into the host DNA.
The life cycle of a lytic virus does NOT involve...
An acellular object that contains DNA or RNA and is protected by a protein coat is called a...
Bacteria can be identified by the following characteristics EXCEPT
the presence of a nucleus.
Important differences between archaebacteria and eubacteria include all of the following EXCEPT
presence of capsid proteins
Bacteria play an important role in ecosystems as
producers and decomposers
What causes disease?
agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi; materials in the enviornment, and inheritance
How are infectious diseases transmitted?
from one person to another through coughing, sneezing or physical contace; through contaminated water or food, infected animals
Who discovered viruses? What did he discover?
Wendell Stanley, Tobacco Mosaic Virus
How are viruses classified?
genome (genetic material)
type of organism it infects
A bactripohage infects ________.
An animal virus infects _______.
A plant virus infects ______.
virus attaches to host cell, injects its nucleic acid, destroys host DNA, makes copies of itself, breaks out of cell
Lytic Infection (Virulent)
virus injects its DNA, viral DNA is incorporated into the host DNA, viral DNA is replicated with the host DNA, can become lytic
Lysogenic Cycle (Latent)
Viruses are nonliving because....
they can't survive on their own; don't fit the criteria for life
A ___________ has a genome of RNA and therefore must change into DNA before it can infect anything.
changing of RNA to DNA
A prophage is produced during the _________ cycle.
DNA of a virus
Viruses always have...
DNA or RNA
spherical shaped bacteria
rod shaped bacteria
herical shaped, spiral bacteria