The characteristic pattern of psychological and physiological responses a person experiences after the loss of a significant person, object, belief, of relationship.
A state of desolation that occurs as the result of a loss, particularly the death of a significant other.
Encompasses the social prescribed behavior after the death of a significant other.
Define Anticipatory grief.
The characteristic pattern of psychological and physiologica responses a person makes to the impending loss (real or imagined) of a significant person, object belief, or relationship.
Engel's Model of Grief is:
1.Shock and disbelief
4.Resolving the loss (focus energy on deceased)
5.Idealizaion(neg feeling supressed)
6.Outcome (interest in new relationships)
Last 1 year or longer
Parkes' Model of Grief is:
3.Disorganization (severe depression)
4.Reorganization 6-9mth post (interest in living)
2 years or longer
Grief Cycle Model is:
2.Protest 1wk-3mth drops level of function
3.Disogranization 3-6mth depression
4.reorganization 6-mth - 1yr+ increase level of function
Kubler-Ross' Stages of Dying is:
Hogan's Grief to Personal Growth Model proposes:
2 pathways to grief.
1.Grief to Growth Pathway
2.Mired to Grief Pathway.
Factors Affecting Grieving are:
Meaning of the loss
Circumstances of the loss
Religious beliefs and cultural practices
Personal resources and stressors
Sociocultural resources and stressors
Physiological signs of Grieving are:
Anorexia or GI disturbances
Lack of Strength
Fellings of emptiness and heaviness
Altered Grieving is:
Manifestations of Altered Grieving
What is Dysfunctional Grieving?
Grief that falls outside the normal response range and may manifested as exaggerated grief, prolonged grief, or absence grief.
Subjective Data for Grief Assessment include
Normal Pattern Identification - personal resources and personal stressors
Risk Indentifications - Analysis of resources
Dysfunction Identification - prolonged grief
Objective Data for Grief Assessment include
Dejected physical appearance
Slow Motor Function
Outbursts of anger
Appetite disturbances (excessive weight loss or gain)
Nursing Dx Statements for Grieving Includes
Anticipatory Grieving is
Intellectual and emotional responses and behaviors by which individuals, families, and communities work thru the process of modifying self concept based on the perception of loss
Characteristics of Anticipatory Grieving include:
Potential loss of significant object
expression of distress at potential loss
denial of potential loss
changes in eating habits
alterations in sleep patterns/activity level
altered communicaiton patterns
Dysfunctional Grieving is:
Extended unsuccessful use of intellectual and emotional responses by which individuals families and communities attempt to work through the process of modifying self-concept based on the perception of loss.
Characteristics of Dysfunctional Grieving include:
Verbal expression of distress at loss
denial of loss
Expression of guilt or expression of unresolved issues
Sadness or crying
Difficulty in expressing loss
Alterations in eating, sleep, dream, activity or libido.
Outcome Identification and Planning
Moving toward resolution of diverse emotions
Accepting the reality of the loss
Reinvesting emotional and physical energy in meaningful people and activities.
Working through grief stages
Encouraging support groups
Nursing interventions for altered grieving
Healthcare planning and home community based nursing
Possible Outcome Criteria
Nursing Dx for the Dying Patient Include
Deficient Fluid Volume
Imbalanced Nutrition - Less than body requirements
Impaired Gas Exchange
Interruped Family Process
Caring for the Deceased
End of Life Care
Issues related to death and dying
Concluding phase of and individual's life span
Focus on physical and psychosocial needs of patient and patient's family
Goals of EOL Care
Provide Comfort and supportive care during dying process
Improve quality of remaining life
Help ensure a dignified death
Physical Manifestations of EOL Care
Death Occurs when all vital organs and systems cease to function
Metabolism is decreased
Body gradually slows down until all function ends
Respiratory generally ceases first
Heart stops beating within a few minutes of respiratory shutdown
Cessation of Heart-lung Function
Cessation of Whole Brain Function
Cessation of Higher-Brain Function
The ability to perceive and reason, as well as the ability to communicate understanding of the other person's feelings and their attached meanings, is a core characteristic of a helping relationship.
Define Sympathy -
The fact or power of sharing the feeling of another especially in sorrow or trouble; fellow feeling compassion or commiseration.
To have empathy a nurse must:
Have enough knowledge and experience to perceive the client's perpective accurately.
Feel secure enough not to be intimidated if the client experiences a situation differently.
Feel comfortable enought to be able to imagine what a stiuation might be like for someone else, while remaining outside that situation to maintain objectivity.
Convey to the client that the nurse perceives the client's feelings, thoughts and experiences accurately.