quiz #1 – dementia

Card Set Information

quiz #1 – dementia
2011-02-20 23:13:02
clinical neurology

Show Answers:

  1. what is dementia
    • mental deterioration in adults. Characteristics include loss of intellectual function
    • loss of cognitive function
    • loss of social function
    • loss of motor function
  2. true or false – a patient that suffers from dementia will have a lifespan that is about 10 years shorter and death is usually caused by something else
  3. what is the incidence of severe dementia in the USA
    2 million
  4. what is the incidence of moderate dementia in the USA
    5 million adults
  5. true or false – 5-10% of people over 65 years have some manifestation of dementia
  6. name some of the behavioral changes that occur in patients that suffer from dementia
    • fearful/anxious
    • inattentive
    • irritable
    • lack of interest in typical activities
    • silence or very talkative
    • inappropriate dress
    • lack of discretion – profanity
  7. what are some of the intellectual/cognitive changes?
    • forget where they are/what happened
    • forget appointments, people, names
    • cannot follow directions
    • cannot do ordinary math
    • judgment flawed
    • abstract thinking loss
    • easily confused in conversation
  8. what are some of the causes of potentially reversible dementia
    • drug and toxic agents
    • lead – also produces peripheral neuropathy
    • magnesese – also produces parkinsonian syndrome
    • Mercury – "mad as a Hatter" - the top hats that are made of felt
    • carbon tetrachloride
    • alcohol – also may produce a peripheral neuropathy, over a long period of time
  9. what two vitamins deficiencies can cause potentially irreversible dementia
    • thiamine – B1
    • vitamin B12
  10. what is Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome
    includes ataxia, confusion, and paralysis of extraocular muscles, and is associated with vitamin deficiency of thiamine B1
  11. what are some of the signs and symptoms of a vitamin deficiency of vitamin B 12
    anemia that may produce confusion
  12. what is Korsakoff psychosis
    patient can't form new memories, also related to vitamin deficiency of thiamine B1
  13. what are some of the metabolic causes of potentially irreversible dementia
    • myxedema (hypothyroidism) – slow mentation
    • renal failure – dialysis dementia
    • hypoglycemia
    • Cushing's syndrome
    • hypoxia, COPD, heart failure
  14. Is Alzheimer's dementia classified as nonreversible dementia or potentially reversible dementia?
    nonreversible dementia
  15. what are some of the characteristics of Alzheimer's dementia
    • insidious, progressive
    • cause uncertain
    • begins middle-age, 50 – 60
    • memory loss first symptom
    • may develop repetitive behaviors
    • diffuse cerebellar dysfunction
    • neurofibrillary tangles, cerebral atrophy
    • not normal aging
  16. what chromosome is affected in Huntington's disease
    chromosome 4, autosomal dominant
  17. when do symptoms present in Huntington's disease
  18. how many people out of 10,000 will suffer from Huntington's disease?

    Is it more common in male or female?

    equally common in male and female
  19. how soon after the symptoms of Huntington's disease present will a patient lose all function?
    10 – 15 years
  20. what are some of the infectious diseases that can cause nonreversible dementia
    • AIDS dementia– late stages
    • Jakob Creutzfeldt disease – mad cow disease
    • neurosyphilis – has pretty much vanished because of penicillin, caused by sexual contact by infected person, slowly reaches nervous system
  21. true or false – dementia is easily diagnosed by one universal test
  22. what are the requirements for a diagnosis of dementia
    • complete medical exam
    • evidences several cognitive deficits, including memory impairment of at least one of; aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, decreased need for sleep, cognitive deficits severe enough to interfere with occupational and/or social activities.
  23. define aphasia
    problems with language (receptive and expressive)
  24. define apraxia
    inability to carry out purposeful movements even though there is no motor or sensory impairment
  25. define agnosia
    failure to recognize, especially people
  26. what is the treatment for dementia
    • correct underlying medical issues
    • control behaviors – antipsychotics, antidepressants, sleep aids
    • reduce speed of degeneration – antioxidants, cholinesterase inhibitors (aricept)