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How is a student with a disability defined?
A "child with a disability" or "student with a disability" means a person under the age of twenty-one. . . who, because of mental, physical or emotional reasons can only receive appropriate educational opportunities from a program of special education. Such term does not include a child whose educational needs are due primarily to unfamiliarity with the English language, environmental, cultural or economic factors. Lack of instruction in reading or mathematics or limited English proficiency shall not be the determinant factor in identifying a student as a student with a disability.
Define Special Education
"Special education" means specially designed instruction which includes special services or programs. . . and transportation, provided at no cost to the parents to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability.
What are some special services offered to students with disabilities?
audiology, counseling including rehabilitation counseling services, occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech pathology, medical services as defined by regulations of the commissioner, psychological services, school health services, school nurse services, school social work, assistive technology services as defined under federal law, interpreting services, orientation and mobility services, parent counseling and training and other appropriate developmental, corrective or other support services and appropriate access to recreation
What is Autism?
a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that adversely affects a student’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a student's educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the student has an emotional disturbance as defined in paragraph (4) of this subdivision. A student who manifests the characteristics of autism after age 3 could be diagnosed as having autism if the criteria in this paragraph are otherwise satisfied.
What is deafness?
a hearing impairment that is so severe that the student is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a student’s educational performance.
What is deaf-blindness?
concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for students with deafness or students with blindness.
What is an emotional distrubance?
a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a student’s educational performance:
- (i)an inability to learn that cannot be explained
- by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
- (ii) an inability to build or maintain
- satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers;
- (iii) inappropriate types of behavior or feelings
- under normal circumstances;
- (iv)a generally pervasive mood of unhappiness or
- depression; or
- (v)a tendency to develop physical symptoms or
- fears associated with personal or school problems.
- The term includes schizophrenia. The term does
- not apply to students who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.
What is a hearing impairment?
an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects the child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section.
What is the definition of a learning disabilities?
a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which manifests itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage
What is the definition mental retardation?
significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a student’s educational performance.
What is the definitions of multiple disabilites?
concomitant impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which cause such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.
What is the definition of orthopedic impairment?
a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a student's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member, etc.), impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.),and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputation, and fractures or burns which cause contractures).
What is the definition of a health impairment?
having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems, including but not limited to a heart condition, tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, nephritis, asthma, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, epilepsy, lead poisoning, leukemia, diabetes, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or tourette syndrome, which adversely affects a student's educational performance.
What is the definition of a speech or langauge impairment?
a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a student's educational performance.
What is the definiton of traumatic brain injury?
an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force or by certain medical conditions such as stroke, encephalitis, aneurysm, anoxia or brain tumors with resulting impairments that adversely affect educational performance. The term includes open or closed head injuries or brain injuries from certain medical conditions resulting in mild, moderate or severe impairments in one or more areas, including cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgement, problem solving, sensory, perceptual and motor abilities, psychosocial behavior, physical functions, information processing, and speech. The term does not include injuries that are congenital or caused by birth trauma.
What is the definition of visual impairment including blindness?
an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a student's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
What is the definition of gifted?
pupils who show evidence of high performances capability and exceptional potential in area such as general intellectual ability, special academic aptitude and outstanding ability in visual and performing arts. Such definition shall include those pupils who require educational programs or services beyond those normally provided by the regular school program in order to realize their full potential