PSYCH 101 Exam 2
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PSYCH 101 Exam 2
Study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations they evoke in a human observer
The minimum amount of physical energy necessary to produce a sensation
A decrease in sensory response to an unchanging stimulus
Separation of sensory information into important elements
Basic elements of a stimulus, such as lines, shapes, edges, or colors
Codes used by the sense organs to transmit information to the brain
the minimum difference between two stimuli that is detectable to an observer
A sensory impression; also the process of detection physical energies with the sensory organs.
The mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns
Giving priority to a particular incoming sensory message
The light-sensitive layer of cells at the back of the eye
Changes in the shape of the lens of the eyes
Difficulty focusing nearby objects (farsightedness)
difficulty focusing distant objects (nearsightedness)
Defects in the cornea, lens, or eye that cause some areas of vision to be out of focus
farsightedness caused by aging
visual receptors for colors and daylight visual acuity
Visual receptors for dim light that produce only black and white sensations
The sharpness of visual perception
: a small cup-shaped area in the middle of the retina contains only cones
Vision at the edges of the visual field. In the Retina, outside fovea, contain most rods, sensitive to movement
theory of color vision based on three cone types: red, green and blue. Works for cones in Retina
Theory of color vision based on three coding systems (red or green ,yellow or blue, black or white), applies in
A total inability to perceive colors
an inability to distinguish some colors
increased retinal sensitivity to light
receptor cells within the cochlea that transduce vibrations into nerve impulses. In side
(snail-shaped organ that makes up the inner ear). Hair cells are part of the
organ of Corti
Organ of Corti
Center part of the cohlea, containing hair cells, canals, and membranes
holds that tones up tp 4,000 hertz are converted to nerve impulses that match the frequency of each tone
theory that higher and lower tones excite specific areas of the cochlea
Conductive hearing loss
poor transfer of sound from the eardrum to the inner ear
Sensorineural hearing loss
loss of hearing caused by damage to the inner ear hair cells or auditory nerver
Noise-induced hearing loss
Damage caused by exposing the hair cells to excessively loud sounds
The perceived size of an object remains constant, despite changes in its retinal image.
the apparen (or relative) brightness of object remains the same as long as they are illuminate dby the same amount of light
part of stimulus appears to stand out as an object (figure) against a less prominent background
Gestalt Principles of organization
: group things are closer
: group things are similar
3)continuation, or continuity
: tendency to perecive smooth continous lines
: tendency to "fill in"
: tendency to perceive obj that are near in time and space
: tendency to perceive elements that move together as belong together
an initial guess regarding how to organize (perceive) a stimulus pattern
the ability to see three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distances
features of the environment and messages from the body that supply information about distance and space
Binocular depth cues
Perceptual features that impart information about distance and three-dimensional space which require two eyes
: a discrepancy in the images that reach the right and left eyes->stereoscopic vision
: lines of vision from eyes are parallel, but 50ft or closer, eyes must turn inward to focus on object
Monocular depth cues
perceptual features that impart information about distance and three-dimensional space which require just one eye.
: bending of the lens to focus on nearby objects
Pictorial depth cue
: in paintings, drawings, photos, etc.
perception of space and depth caused chiefly by the fact that the eyes receive different images. caused by retinal desparity
pictorial depth cues
monocular depth cues found in paintings, drawings, and photographs that impart information about space, depth and distance.
3)height in the picture plane
4)light ans shadow
An explanation of the moon illusion stating that the horizon seems more distant than the night sky.
a mental model of external events
Organizing perceptions by beginning with low-level features
applying higher-level knowledge to rapidly organize sensory information into a meaningful perception
perceptual expectancy (or set)
A readiness to perceive in a particular manner, induced by strong expectations.
changes in percption that can be attributed to prior experience; a result of changes in how the brain processes sensory information
a misleading or distorted perception
an imaginary sensation-such as seeing, hearing, sor smelling, something that does not exist in the external world
obtaining additional information to check on the accuracy of perceptions.
two equal-length lines tipped with inward or outward pointing V's appear to be of different lengths
mental awareness of sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings.
a state of clear, organized alertness
alerted state of consciousness (ASC)
a condition of awareness distinctly different in quality or pattern from waking consciousness
any repeating cycle of biological activity, such as sleep and waking cycles or change in body temperature
a brief shift in brainwave patterns to those of sleep
being prevented from getting desired or needed amounts or sleep.
a major disruption of mental and emotional functioning brought about by sleep loss
a person averaging 5 hrs of sleep or less per night
a person averaging 9 hrs of sleep or more per night
A sleep-promoting substance found in the brain and spinal cord
a device designed to detect, amplify and record electrical acitivity in the brain
small, fast brainwaves associated with being awake and alert
large, slow brainwaves associated with relacation and falling asleep
4 stages, NREM(inquite sleep, stage 1-3) and REM(active sleep, stage 4)
Stage 1, small, irregular brainwaves and some alpha waves
: reflex muscle twitch
Distinctive bursts of brainwave activity that indicate aperson is asleep; Stage 2
Large, slow brainwaves that occur in deeper sleep (stage 3 slow wave sleep and 4)
Stage 4, deepest form of normal sleep
Rapid eye movements (REMs)
Swift eye movements during sleep
sleep marked by rapid eye movements and a return to stage 1 EEG patterns
Chronic inability to get sufficient sleep; 3 types:
1) difficulty falling asleep
2) awaken easily, cant go back sleep
3) awakens briefly and frequently
linking a particular response with specific stimuli
sleepwalking; occurs during NREM sleep
A bad dream that occurs during REM sleep
A state of panic during NREM sleep
A sudden, irresistible sleep attack
a sudden temporary paralysis of the muscles
Repeated interruption of breathing during sleep
Sudden infant death syndrome(SIDS)
The sudden, unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant.
The occurrence of extra rapid eye movement sleep following REM sleep deprivation
Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces
images in dreams that serve as visible signs of hidden ideas, desires, impulses, emotions, relationships, and so forth
an attempt to explain how dream content is affected by motor commands in the brain that occur during sleep but are not carried out.
Mental filters that hide the true meanings of dreams
combining several people, objects, or events into a single dream image.
directing emotions or actions towards safe or unimportant dream images
the nonliteral expression of dream content.
making a dream more logical and complete while remembering it.
A dream in which the dreamer feels awake and capable of normal thought and action
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience
Any event that increases the probability that a particular response will occur; Two types of operant reinforcer
: satisfies a basic biological need (food)
: don't satisfy a basic need, but have been associated with a primary reinforcer (Token reinforcer is tangible such as $)
events that precede a response
effects that follow a response
an innate, automatic response to a stimulus (eye blink)
A form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli
: A stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response (food)
: an innate reflex response elicited by an UCS (salivation)
: a stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an UCS (bell) ->
Neutral Stimulus that does not evoke a response
:A learned response elicited by an CS (salivation to bell)
learning based on the consequences of responding
: Positive (adding something positive) and Negative (removing something negative)
(decrease behavior):Aversive Punishment (adding something negative) and Response Cost or Time Out (removing something positive)
The period in conditioning during which a response is reinforced
Reinforcement that occurs when an unconditioned stimulus closely follows a conditioned stimulus
Higher order conditioning
Classical conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce further learning; that is, a CS is used as if it were a UCS.
an anticipation concerning future events or relationships.
The weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement
The reappearance of learned response after its apparent extinction
the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to , but not identical to , a conditioned stimulus
The learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli.
Conditioned emotional response(CER)
An emotional response that has been linked to a previously nonemotional stimulus by classical conditioning
Vicarious classical conditioning
Classical conditioning brought about by observing another person react to a particular stimulus
Law of effect
Responses that lead to desirable effects are repeated; those that produce undesirable results are not
the assembly of separate responses into a series of actions that lead to reinforcement
a behavior repeated because it seems to produce reinforcement, even though it is actually unnecessary
Gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern, take it step by step
The weakening or disappearance of a nonreinforced operant response.
reinforement based on receiving attention, approval or affection from another person
Knowledge of results(KR)
: information returned to a person about hte effects a response has had; aka KR
receive reinforcement after every time they perform a behavior
reinforcement is provided only part of the time (gamble);
Partial reinforcement effect
: responses acquired with partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction
Fixed ratio Schedule
: reinforcement is given after a fixed # of responses have been made
variable ratio schedule
: A varied # of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. produce highest response rate, most resistant to extinction
response if reinforced after a specified period of time.
: response rainforced after varying period of time has passed
schedule of reinforcement
a rule or plain for determining which responses will be reinforced
learning to make a response in order to end an aversive stimulus
learning to make a response in order to postpone or prevent discomfort.
higher level learning involving thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipation
internal images or other mental representations of an area(maze, city, campus, etc) that underlie an ability to choose alternative paths to the same goal
Learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is provided
Learning that takes place mechanically, through repetition and memorization, or by learning rules
learning based on insight and understanding.
learning achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another or nothing the consequences of those actions
A person who serves as an example in observational learning
the mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organizing, altering, and retrieving information
Converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory
holding information in memory for later use
Recovering information from storage in memory
the first, normally unconscious, stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less.
a mental image or visual representation
a brief continuation of sensory activity in the auditory system after a sound is heard
The memory system used to hold small amounts of information in our conscious awareness for about a dozen seconds.
: especially used for thinking and problem solving.
Long-term memory (LTM)
The memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information.
information bits grouped into larger units.
: meaningful units of information, such as numbers, letters, words, or phrases
Silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold it in short-term memory.
rehearsal that links new information with existing memories and knowledge
reorganizing or updating memories on the basis of logic, reasoning, or the addition of new information
use of various cues and strategies to improve the memory of eyewitnesses.
A mdel of memory that views it as an organized system of linked information
memories that are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to other, related memories
long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills
that part of long-term memory containing specific factual information
a subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal knowledge about the world
a subpart of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places.
the feeling that a memory is available but not quite retrievable
feeling of knowing
the ability to predict beforehand whethere one will be able to remember something
to supply or reproduce memorized information with minimum of external cues
Serial position effect
the tendency to make the most errors in remembering the middle items of an ordered list.
an ability to correctly identify previously learned information
learning again something that was previously learned. used to measure memory of prior learning.
A memory that a person is aware of having: a memory that is consciously retrieved
a memory that a person does not know exists; a memory that is retrieved unconsciously
facilitating the retrieval of an implicit memory by using cues to activate hidden memories.
Curve of forgetting
a graph that shows that mount of memorized information remembered after varying lengths of time
Failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory
physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that take palce when memories are stored
the fading or weakening of memories assumed to occur when memory traces become weaker
Theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved
any stimulus associated with a particular memory. memory cues usually enhance retrieval
memory influence by one's bodily state at the time of learning and a the time of retrieval. Improved memory occurs when the bodily states match
the tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories and the reverse.
: the tendency for new memories to interfere with the retrieval of old memories
: the tendency for old memories to interfere with the retrieval of newer memories
Mastery of one task aids learning or performing another
Mastery of one task conflicts with learning or performing another.
unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness
a conscious effort to put something out of mind or to keep it from awareness
memories created at times of high emotion that seem especially vivid.
Loss of memory for events that preceded a head injury o other amnesia-causing event.
Loss of the ability to form or retrieve memories for events that occur after an injury or trauma.
process by which relatively permanent memories are formed in the brain
A Brain structure associated with emotion and the transfer of information form short-term memory to long-term memory
A practice schedule that alternates study periods with brief rests
A practice schedule in which studying continues for long periods, without interruption
the exact dictionary definition of a word or concept; its objective meaning
The subjective, personal, or emotional meaning of a word or concept
The study of meanings in words and language
The basic speech sounds of a language
The smallest meaningful units in a language, such as syllables or words
two-way bilingual education
a program in which English-speaking children and children with limited English proficiency are taught half the day in English and half in a second language
Rules by which a simple declarative sentence may be changed to other voices or forms (past tense, passive voice, and so forth)