PSYCH 101 Exam 2

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PSYCH 101 Exam 2
2010-02-12 03:54:16
Pschology 101

Chapter 4-8
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  1. Psychophysics
    Study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations they evoke in a human observer
  2. Absolute threshold
    The minimum amount of physical energy necessary to produce a sensation
  3. Sensory adaptation
    A decrease in sensory response to an unchanging stimulus
  4. Sensory analysis
    Separation of sensory information into important elements
  5. Perceptual features
    Basic elements of a stimulus, such as lines, shapes, edges, or colors
  6. Sensory coding
    Codes used by the sense organs to transmit information to the brain
  7. Difference threshold
    the minimum difference between two stimuli that is detectable to an observer
  8. Sensation
    A sensory impression; also the process of detection physical energies with the sensory organs.
  9. Perception
    The mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns
  10. Selective attention
    Giving priority to a particular incoming sensory message
  11. Retina
    The light-sensitive layer of cells at the back of the eye
  12. Accommodation
    Changes in the shape of the lens of the eyes
  13. Hyperopia
    Difficulty focusing nearby objects (farsightedness)
  14. Myopia
    difficulty focusing distant objects (nearsightedness)
  15. Astigmatism
    Defects in the cornea, lens, or eye that cause some areas of vision to be out of focus
  16. Presbyopia
    farsightedness caused by aging
  17. Cones
    visual receptors for colors and daylight visual acuity
  18. Rods
    Visual receptors for dim light that produce only black and white sensations
  19. Visual acuity
    • The sharpness of visual perception
    • Fovea: a small cup-shaped area in the middle of the retina contains only cones
  20. Peripheral vision
    Vision at the edges of the visual field. In the Retina, outside fovea, contain most rods, sensitive to movement
  21. Trichromatic theory
    theory of color vision based on three cone types: red, green and blue. Works for cones in Retina
  22. Opponent-process theory
    Theory of color vision based on three coding systems (red or green ,yellow or blue, black or white), applies in
  23. Color blindness
    A total inability to perceive colors
  24. Color weakness
    an inability to distinguish some colors
  25. Dark adaptation
    increased retinal sensitivity to light
  26. Hair Cells
    receptor cells within the cochlea that transduce vibrations into nerve impulses. In side cochlea (snail-shaped organ that makes up the inner ear). Hair cells are part of the organ of Corti
  27. Organ of Corti
    Center part of the cohlea, containing hair cells, canals, and membranes
  28. Frequency theory
    holds that tones up tp 4,000 hertz are converted to nerve impulses that match the frequency of each tone
  29. Place theory
    theory that higher and lower tones excite specific areas of the cochlea
  30. Conductive hearing loss
    poor transfer of sound from the eardrum to the inner ear
  31. Sensorineural hearing loss
    loss of hearing caused by damage to the inner ear hair cells or auditory nerver
  32. Noise-induced hearing loss
    Damage caused by exposing the hair cells to excessively loud sounds
  33. Size Constancy
    The perceived size of an object remains constant, despite changes in its retinal image.
  34. Brightness constancy
    the apparen (or relative) brightness of object remains the same as long as they are illuminate dby the same amount of light
  35. Figure-ground organization
    part of stimulus appears to stand out as an object (figure) against a less prominent background
  36. Gestalt Principles of organization
    • 1)Nearness: group things are closer
    • 2)similarity: group things are similar
    • 3)continuation, or continuity: tendency to perecive smooth continous lines
    • 4)closure: tendency to "fill in"
    • 5)Contiguity: tendency to perceive obj that are near in time and space
    • 6)Common region: tendency to perceive elements that move together as belong together
  37. perceptual hypothesis
    an initial guess regarding how to organize (perceive) a stimulus pattern
  38. Depth perception
    the ability to see three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distances
  39. depth cues
    features of the environment and messages from the body that supply information about distance and space
  40. Binocular depth cues
    • Perceptual features that impart information about distance and three-dimensional space which require two eyes
    • retinal desparity: a discrepancy in the images that reach the right and left eyes->stereoscopic vision
    • Convergence: lines of vision from eyes are parallel, but 50ft or closer, eyes must turn inward to focus on object
  41. Monocular depth cues
    • perceptual features that impart information about distance and three-dimensional space which require just one eye.
    • accommodation: bending of the lens to focus on nearby objects
    • Pictorial depth cue: in paintings, drawings, photos, etc.
  42. Stereoscopic vision
    perception of space and depth caused chiefly by the fact that the eyes receive different images. caused by retinal desparity
  43. pictorial depth cues
    • monocular depth cues found in paintings, drawings, and photographs that impart information about space, depth and distance.
    • 1)linear perspective
    • 2)relative size
    • 3)height in the picture plane
    • 4)light ans shadow
    • 5)overlap
    • 6)texture gradients
    • 7)Aerial perspective
    • 8)relative motion
  44. Apparent-distance hypothesis
    An explanation of the moon illusion stating that the horizon seems more distant than the night sky.
  45. Perceptual construction
    a mental model of external events
  46. bottom-up processing
    Organizing perceptions by beginning with low-level features
  47. top-down processing
    applying higher-level knowledge to rapidly organize sensory information into a meaningful perception
  48. perceptual expectancy (or set)
    A readiness to perceive in a particular manner, induced by strong expectations.
  49. Perceptual learning
    changes in percption that can be attributed to prior experience; a result of changes in how the brain processes sensory information
  50. Illusion
    a misleading or distorted perception
  51. hallucination
    an imaginary sensation-such as seeing, hearing, sor smelling, something that does not exist in the external world
  52. reality testing
    obtaining additional information to check on the accuracy of perceptions.
  53. Muller-Lyer illusion
    two equal-length lines tipped with inward or outward pointing V's appear to be of different lengths
  54. Consciousness
    mental awareness of sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings.
  55. Waking consciousness
    a state of clear, organized alertness
  56. alerted state of consciousness (ASC)
    a condition of awareness distinctly different in quality or pattern from waking consciousness
  57. biological rhythm
    any repeating cycle of biological activity, such as sleep and waking cycles or change in body temperature
  58. microsleep
    a brief shift in brainwave patterns to those of sleep
  59. sleep deprivation
    being prevented from getting desired or needed amounts or sleep.
  60. Sleep-deprivation psychosis
    a major disruption of mental and emotional functioning brought about by sleep loss
  61. Short sleeper
    a person averaging 5 hrs of sleep or less per night
  62. long sleeper
    a person averaging 9 hrs of sleep or more per night
  63. Sleep hormone
    A sleep-promoting substance found in the brain and spinal cord
  64. electrencephalograph (EEG)
    a device designed to detect, amplify and record electrical acitivity in the brain
  65. Beta waves
    small, fast brainwaves associated with being awake and alert
  66. Alpha waves
    large, slow brainwaves associated with relacation and falling asleep
  67. sleep stages
    4 stages, NREM(inquite sleep, stage 1-3) and REM(active sleep, stage 4)
  68. Light sleep
    • Stage 1, small, irregular brainwaves and some alpha waves
    • Hypnic jerk: reflex muscle twitch
  69. Sleep spindles
    Distinctive bursts of brainwave activity that indicate aperson is asleep; Stage 2
  70. Delta wave
    Large, slow brainwaves that occur in deeper sleep (stage 3 slow wave sleep and 4)
  71. Deep Sleep
    Stage 4, deepest form of normal sleep
  72. Rapid eye movements (REMs)
    Swift eye movements during sleep
  73. REM Sleep
    sleep marked by rapid eye movements and a return to stage 1 EEG patterns
  74. Insomnia
    • Chronic inability to get sufficient sleep; 3 types:
    • 1) difficulty falling asleep
    • 2) awaken easily, cant go back sleep
    • 3) awakens briefly and frequently
  75. Stimulus control
    linking a particular response with specific stimuli
  76. Somnambulism
    sleepwalking; occurs during NREM sleep
  77. Nightmare
    A bad dream that occurs during REM sleep
  78. Night terror
    A state of panic during NREM sleep
  79. Narcolepsy
    A sudden, irresistible sleep attack
  80. Cataplexy
    a sudden temporary paralysis of the muscles
  81. Sleep apnea
    Repeated interruption of breathing during sleep
  82. Sudden infant death syndrome(SIDS)
    The sudden, unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant.
  83. REM rebound
    The occurrence of extra rapid eye movement sleep following REM sleep deprivation
  84. Psychodynamic theory
    Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces
  85. Dream symbols
    images in dreams that serve as visible signs of hidden ideas, desires, impulses, emotions, relationships, and so forth
  86. Activation-synthesis hypothesis
    an attempt to explain how dream content is affected by motor commands in the brain that occur during sleep but are not carried out.
  87. Dream processes
    Mental filters that hide the true meanings of dreams
  88. Condensation
    combining several people, objects, or events into a single dream image.
  89. Displacement
    directing emotions or actions towards safe or unimportant dream images
  90. Symbolization
    the nonliteral expression of dream content.
  91. secondary elaboration
    making a dream more logical and complete while remembering it.
  92. Lucid dream
    A dream in which the dreamer feels awake and capable of normal thought and action
  93. Learning
    Any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience
  94. Reinforcement
    • Any event that increases the probability that a particular response will occur; Two types of operant reinforcer
    • Primary reinforcer: satisfies a basic biological need (food)
    • Secondary reinforcer: don't satisfy a basic need, but have been associated with a primary reinforcer (Token reinforcer is tangible such as $)
  95. Antecedents
    events that precede a response
  96. consequences
    effects that follow a response
  97. Reflex
    an innate, automatic response to a stimulus (eye blink)
  98. Classical conditioning
    • A form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli
    • Unconditioned stimulus: A stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response (food)
    • Unconditioned response: an innate reflex response elicited by an UCS (salivation)
    • Conditioned stimulus: a stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an UCS (bell) ->Neutral Stimulus that does not evoke a response
    • Conditioned response:A learned response elicited by an CS (salivation to bell)
  99. Operant conditioning
    • learning based on the consequences of responding
    • Reinforcement (increase behavior): Positive (adding something positive) and Negative (removing something negative)
    • Punishment (decrease behavior):Aversive Punishment (adding something negative) and Response Cost or Time Out (removing something positive)
  100. Acquisition
    The period in conditioning during which a response is reinforced
  101. Respondent reinforcement
    Reinforcement that occurs when an unconditioned stimulus closely follows a conditioned stimulus
  102. Higher order conditioning
    Classical conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce further learning; that is, a CS is used as if it were a UCS.
  103. Expectancy
    an anticipation concerning future events or relationships.
  104. Extinction
    The weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement
  105. Spontaneous recovery
    The reappearance of learned response after its apparent extinction
  106. stimulus generalization
    the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to , but not identical to , a conditioned stimulus
  107. Stimulus discrimination
    The learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli.
  108. Conditioned emotional response(CER)
    An emotional response that has been linked to a previously nonemotional stimulus by classical conditioning
  109. Vicarious classical conditioning
    Classical conditioning brought about by observing another person react to a particular stimulus
  110. Law of effect
    Responses that lead to desirable effects are repeated; those that produce undesirable results are not
  111. Response chaining
    the assembly of separate responses into a series of actions that lead to reinforcement
  112. Superstitious behavior
    a behavior repeated because it seems to produce reinforcement, even though it is actually unnecessary
  113. Shaping
    Gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern, take it step by step
  114. Operant extinction
    The weakening or disappearance of a nonreinforced operant response.
  115. Social reinforcer
    reinforement based on receiving attention, approval or affection from another person
  116. Knowledge of results(KR)
    • informational feedback
    • Feedback: information returned to a person about hte effects a response has had; aka KR
  117. Continuous reinforcement
    receive reinforcement after every time they perform a behavior
  118. Partial reinforcement
    • reinforcement is provided only part of the time (gamble); Partial reinforcement effect: responses acquired with partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction
    • Fixed ratio Schedule: reinforcement is given after a fixed # of responses have been made
    • variable ratio schedule: A varied # of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. produce highest response rate, most resistant to extinction
    • Fixed interval: response if reinforced after a specified period of time.
    • Variable interval: response rainforced after varying period of time has passed
  119. schedule of reinforcement
    a rule or plain for determining which responses will be reinforced
  120. Escape learning
    learning to make a response in order to end an aversive stimulus
  121. Avoidance learning
    learning to make a response in order to postpone or prevent discomfort.
  122. Cognitive learning
    higher level learning involving thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipation
  123. cognitive map
    internal images or other mental representations of an area(maze, city, campus, etc) that underlie an ability to choose alternative paths to the same goal
  124. Latent learning
    Learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is provided
  125. Rote learning
    Learning that takes place mechanically, through repetition and memorization, or by learning rules
  126. Discovery learning
    learning based on insight and understanding.
  127. Observational learning
    learning achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another or nothing the consequences of those actions
  128. Model
    A person who serves as an example in observational learning
  129. Memory
    the mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organizing, altering, and retrieving information
  130. Encoding
    Converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory
  131. storage
    holding information in memory for later use
  132. Retrieval
    Recovering information from storage in memory
  133. Sensory memory
    the first, normally unconscious, stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less.
  134. Iconic memory
    a mental image or visual representation
  135. Echoic memory
    a brief continuation of sensory activity in the auditory system after a sound is heard
  136. Short-term memory(STM)
    • The memory system used to hold small amounts of information in our conscious awareness for about a dozen seconds.
    • Working memory: especially used for thinking and problem solving.
  137. Long-term memory (LTM)
    The memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information.
  138. information chunks
    • information bits grouped into larger units.
    • Information bits: meaningful units of information, such as numbers, letters, words, or phrases
  139. Maintenance rehearsal
    Silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold it in short-term memory.
  140. Elaborative rehearsal
    rehearsal that links new information with existing memories and knowledge
  141. constructive processing
    reorganizing or updating memories on the basis of logic, reasoning, or the addition of new information
  142. Cognitive interview
    use of various cues and strategies to improve the memory of eyewitnesses.
  143. Network model
    A mdel of memory that views it as an organized system of linked information
  144. Redintegrative memories
    memories that are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to other, related memories
  145. Procedural memory
    long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills
  146. declarative memory
    that part of long-term memory containing specific factual information
  147. Semantic memory
    a subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal knowledge about the world
  148. Episodic memory
    a subpart of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places.
  149. Tip-of-the-tougue(TOT)state
    the feeling that a memory is available but not quite retrievable
  150. feeling of knowing
    the ability to predict beforehand whethere one will be able to remember something
  151. Recall
    to supply or reproduce memorized information with minimum of external cues
  152. Serial position effect
    the tendency to make the most errors in remembering the middle items of an ordered list.
  153. Recognition memory
    an ability to correctly identify previously learned information
  154. relearning
    learning again something that was previously learned. used to measure memory of prior learning.
  155. Explicit memory
    A memory that a person is aware of having: a memory that is consciously retrieved
  156. Implicit memory
    a memory that a person does not know exists; a memory that is retrieved unconsciously
  157. Priming
    facilitating the retrieval of an implicit memory by using cues to activate hidden memories.
  158. Curve of forgetting
    a graph that shows that mount of memorized information remembered after varying lengths of time
  159. Encoding failure
    Failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory
  160. Memory traces
    physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that take palce when memories are stored
  161. memory decay
    the fading or weakening of memories assumed to occur when memory traces become weaker
  162. Disuse
    Theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved
  163. Memory cue
    any stimulus associated with a particular memory. memory cues usually enhance retrieval
  164. State-dependent learning
    memory influence by one's bodily state at the time of learning and a the time of retrieval. Improved memory occurs when the bodily states match
  165. interference
    • the tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories and the reverse.
    • Retroactive interference: the tendency for new memories to interfere with the retrieval of old memories
    • Proactive interference: the tendency for old memories to interfere with the retrieval of newer memories
  166. Positive transfer
    Mastery of one task aids learning or performing another
  167. Negative transfer
    Mastery of one task conflicts with learning or performing another.
  168. Repression
    unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness
  169. suppression
    a conscious effort to put something out of mind or to keep it from awareness
  170. Flashbulb memories
    memories created at times of high emotion that seem especially vivid.
  171. Retrograde amnesia
    Loss of memory for events that preceded a head injury o other amnesia-causing event.
  172. Anterograde amnesia
    Loss of the ability to form or retrieve memories for events that occur after an injury or trauma.
  173. consolidation
    process by which relatively permanent memories are formed in the brain
  174. Hippocampus
    A Brain structure associated with emotion and the transfer of information form short-term memory to long-term memory
  175. Spaced practice
    A practice schedule that alternates study periods with brief rests
  176. Massed practice
    A practice schedule in which studying continues for long periods, without interruption
  177. Denotative meaning
    the exact dictionary definition of a word or concept; its objective meaning
  178. Connotative meaning
    The subjective, personal, or emotional meaning of a word or concept
  179. Semantics
    The study of meanings in words and language
  180. Phonemes
    The basic speech sounds of a language
  181. Morphemes
    The smallest meaningful units in a language, such as syllables or words
  182. two-way bilingual education
    a program in which English-speaking children and children with limited English proficiency are taught half the day in English and half in a second language
  183. Transformation rules
    Rules by which a simple declarative sentence may be changed to other voices or forms (past tense, passive voice, and so forth)