Anatomy Test 1
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Characteristics of a "living" Organism?
- 1. Organization (see next two slides)
- 2. Metabolism
- 3. Growth & Development
- 4. Responsiveness
- 5. Adaptation
- 6. Regulation
- 7. Reproduction
Structural Organization of the Human Body?
Chemical level-> Cellular level-> Tissue level-> Organ level-> Organ System level-> Organismal level
The body can be divided into two regions:
- 1. Axial – head, neck and trunk (thevertical axis of the body)
- 2. Appendicular – upper and lower limbs(appendages)
Two kinds of body cavities?
- Posterior cavities
- 1. Cranial – formed by skull bones
- 2. Vertebral – formed by bones of the vertebralcolumn
- Ventral cavities
- 1. Thoracic – the superior cavity
- 2. Abdominopelvic – the inferior cavity
- • Two ventral cavities physically separated by thediaphragm
- • Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavitieslined by a thin serous membrane
- • Serous membrane is divided into twocontinuous parts (layers):
- 1. Parietal layer – lines the internal surfaceof the body wall
- 2. Visceral layer – covers the externalsurface of organs in the cavity
- • Both layers produce a small amount offluid that serves to lubricate the organsand protect against friction.
- • Actually two continuous cavities with nophysical separation•
- Two cavities are:
- 1. Abdominal cavity (superior)
- 2. Pelvic cavity (inferior)
- • The anatomical boundary between thetwo cavities is an imaginary horizontalline drawn across the superior border ofboth hip bones.
Membranes of thenAbdominopelvic Cavities
- • The serous membrane is called peritoneum
- • It is divided into two continuous layers:
- 1. Visceral peritoneum – in contact with theouter surface of organs in these twocavities
- 2. Parietal peritoneum – lining the internalwalls of these two cavities and not directlyin contact with the organs
Four techniques are used when examining surface anatomy..
- 1. Visual Inspection
- 2. Palpation
- 3. Percussion
- 4. Auscultation
The cranium is divided into three regions..where are they located?
- 1. Frontal – the forehead
- 2. Temporal – lateral skull just superior tothe ear
- 3. Occipital – posterior part of the skull
The scapula, clavicle and proximal part ofthe humerus collectively form theshoulder. Important landmarks are(3)..
- 1. Clavicle
- 2. Acromion of the scapula
- 3. Deltoid muscle which is a frequent siteof intramuscular injections
- • Commonly called the armpit and isclinically important because it containsmany nerves and blood vessels that go toand from the upper limb
- • Axillary lymph nodes that drain themammary glands and the upper limb alsoreside in the axilla
- • The biceps brachii becomes prominent when the elbow is flexed
- • The cubital fossa is a depression on the anterior elbow region
- • The median cubital vein resides in the cubital fossa and is a source for venipuncture
- • The triceps brachii forms the bulk of the posterior brachium
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