Anatomy Test 1
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Anatomy Test 1
Characteristics of a "living" Organism?
1. Organization (see next two slides)
3. Growth & Development
Structural Organization of the Human Body?
Chemical level-> Cellular level-> Tissue level-> Organ level-> Organ System level-> Organismal level
The body can be divided into two regions:
1. Axial – head, neck and trunk (thevertical axis of the body)
2. Appendicular – upper and lower limbs(appendages)
Two kinds of body cavities?
1. Cranial – formed by skull bones
2. Vertebral – formed by bones of the vertebralcolumn
1. Thoracic – the superior cavity
2. Abdominopelvic – the inferior cavity
• Two ventral cavities physically separated by thediaphragm
• Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavitieslined by a thin serous membrane
• Serous membrane is divided into twocontinuous parts (layers):
1. Parietal layer – lines the internal surfaceof the body wall
2. Visceral layer – covers the externalsurface of organs in the cavity
• Both layers produce a small amount offluid that serves to lubricate the organsand protect against friction.
• Actually two continuous cavities with nophysical separation•
Two cavities are:
1. Abdominal cavity (superior)
2. Pelvic cavity (inferior)
• The anatomical boundary between thetwo cavities is an imaginary horizontalline drawn across the superior border ofboth hip bones.
Membranes of thenAbdominopelvic Cavities
• The serous membrane is called peritoneum
• It is divided into two continuous layers:
1. Visceral peritoneum – in contact with theouter surface of organs in these twocavities
2. Parietal peritoneum – lining the internalwalls of these two cavities and not directlyin contact with the organs
Four techniques are used when examining surface anatomy..
1. Visual Inspection
The cranium is divided into three regions..where are they located?
1. Frontal – the forehead
2. Temporal – lateral skull just superior tothe ear
3. Occipital – posterior part of the skull
The scapula, clavicle and proximal part ofthe humerus collectively form theshoulder. Important landmarks are(3)..
2. Acromion of the scapula
3. Deltoid muscle which is a frequent siteof intramuscular injections
• Commonly called the armpit and isclinically important because it containsmany nerves and blood vessels that go toand from the upper limb
• Axillary lymph nodes that drain themammary glands and the upper limb alsoreside in the axilla
• The biceps brachii becomes prominent when the elbow is flexed
• The cubital fossa is a depression on the anterior elbow region
• The median cubital vein resides in the cubital fossa and is a source for venipuncture
• The triceps brachii forms the bulk of the posterior brachium