Anatomy Test 1

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Wtiger12
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66425
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Anatomy Test 1
Updated:
2011-02-20 16:41:21
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Anatomy
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  1. Characteristics of a "living" Organism?
    • 1. Organization (see next two slides)
    • 2. Metabolism
    • 3. Growth & Development
    • 4. Responsiveness
    • 5. Adaptation
    • 6. Regulation
    • 7. Reproduction
  2. Structural Organization of the Human Body?
    Chemical level-> Cellular level-> Tissue level-> Organ level-> Organ System level-> Organismal level
  3. The body can be divided into two regions:
    Axial
    Appendicular
    • 1. Axial – head, neck and trunk (thevertical axis of the body)
    • 2. Appendicular – upper and lower limbs(appendages)
  4. Two kinds of body cavities?
    Posterior
    Ventral
    • Posterior cavities
    • 1. Cranial – formed by skull bones
    • 2. Vertebral – formed by bones of the vertebralcolumn
    • Ventral cavities
    • 1. Thoracic – the superior cavity
    • 2. Abdominopelvic – the inferior cavity
    • • Two ventral cavities physically separated by thediaphragm
  5. Cavity Membranes
    • • Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavitieslined by a thin serous membrane
    • • Serous membrane is divided into twocontinuous parts (layers):
    • 1. Parietal layer – lines the internal surfaceof the body wall
    • 2. Visceral layer – covers the externalsurface of organs in the cavity
    • • Both layers produce a small amount offluid that serves to lubricate the organsand protect against friction.
  6. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    • • Actually two continuous cavities with nophysical separation•
    • Two cavities are:
    • 1. Abdominal cavity (superior)
    • 2. Pelvic cavity (inferior)
    • • The anatomical boundary between thetwo cavities is an imaginary horizontalline drawn across the superior border ofboth hip bones.
  7. Membranes of thenAbdominopelvic Cavities
    • • The serous membrane is called peritoneum
    • • It is divided into two continuous layers:
    • 1. Visceral peritoneum – in contact with theouter surface of organs in these twocavities
    • 2. Parietal peritoneum – lining the internalwalls of these two cavities and not directlyin contact with the organs
  8. Four techniques are used when examining surface anatomy..
    • 1. Visual Inspection
    • 2. Palpation
    • 3. Percussion
    • 4. Auscultation
  9. The cranium is divided into three regions..where are they located?
    • 1. Frontal – the forehead
    • 2. Temporal – lateral skull just superior tothe ear
    • 3. Occipital – posterior part of the skull
  10. Shoulder
    The scapula, clavicle and proximal part ofthe humerus collectively form theshoulder. Important landmarks are(3)..
    • 1. Clavicle
    • 2. Acromion of the scapula
    • 3. Deltoid muscle which is a frequent siteof intramuscular injections
  11. Axilla
    • • Commonly called the armpit and isclinically important because it containsmany nerves and blood vessels that go toand from the upper limb
    • • Axillary lymph nodes that drain themammary glands and the upper limb alsoreside in the axilla
  12. Arm
    • • The biceps brachii becomes prominent when the elbow is flexed
    • • The cubital fossa is a depression on the anterior elbow region
    • • The median cubital vein resides in the cubital fossa and is a source for venipuncture
    • • The triceps brachii forms the bulk of the posterior brachium

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