Psychology Midterm 2

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Psychology Midterm 2
2011-02-15 20:14:29

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  1. Memory
    the retention of information over time
  2. The Paradox of Memory
    our memories are surprisingly good in some situations, butsurprisingly poor in other situations
  3. Suggestive memory techniques
    procedures that encourage patients to recallmemories that may or may not have taken place
  4. Memory illusions
    a false but subjectively compelling memory
  5. Observer memory:
    a memory in which you see yourself as an outside observer would(e.g. seeing yourself walking down a path)
  6. Field memory:
    a memory in which you see the world through your own eyes (e.g. remembering walking down the path through your own eyes)
  7. Span
    how much information a memory system can retain
  8. Duration
    length of time for which a memory system can retain information
  9. Sensory memory
    brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short-term memory
  10. Iconic memory
    visual sensory memory
  11. Method of partial report
    Sperling technique in which twelve letters flashed when paired with a tone that signaled a particular row of letters produced better memory for that row of letters. Shows our iconic memory fades very quickly
  12. Eidetic imagery
    “Photographic memory,” an unusually long persistence of iconic memory
  13. Echoic memory
    auditory sensory memory
  14. Short term memory
    memory system that retains information for limited durations. Aka “working memory”—it’s the memory storage for the information we’re currently thinking about or processing
  15. Decay:
    fading of information from memory
  16. Interference
    loss of information from memory because of competition from additional incoming information. 2 types of interference
  17. Retroactive inhibition
    interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information (when learning something new hampers something you previously learned)
  18. Proactive inhibition
    interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of information (when something you previously learned gets in the way of new learning)
  19. Magic number
    the capacity of short-term memory—most of us remember seven plus or minus two pieces of information at a time (e.g. digits, numbers, cities, etc)
  20. Chunking
    organizing information into meaningful groupings, allowing us to extend the span of short-term memory
  21. Rehearsal
    repeating information to extend the duration of retention in short-term memory. Two major types of rehearsal:
  22. Maintenance rehearsal:
    repeating the stimuli in their original form (e.g. hearing a phone number and repeating it over and over to remember it)
  23. Elaborative rehearsal
    linking the stimuli in some meaningful way to remember them (e.g. linking pumpkin patch to patched jeans to remember to go buy jeans in October)
  24. Levels-of-processing
    model of memory: the more deeply we transform information, the better we tend to remember it
  25. Long-term memory
    sustained (from minutes to years) retention of information stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills
  26. Permastore
    type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent
  27. Primacy effect
    the tendency to remember stimuli, like words, at the beginning of a list
  28. Recency effect
    the tendency to remember stimuli at the end of a list
  29. Von Restorff effect
    the tendency to remember stimuli that are distinctive or that stick out
  30. Serial position curve
    graph depicting the effect of both primacy and recency on people’s ability to recall items on a list
  31. Explicit memory
    memories we recall intentionally and are consciously aware of (aka “declarative memory” – you actively, consciously declare what it is)
  32. Semantic memory
    our knowledge of facts about the world
  33. Episodic memory
    recollection of events in our lives
  34. Implicit memory
    memories we don’t deliberately remember or reflect on consciously (aka “nondeclarative memory”—you are not conscious of it and thus do not consciously declare what it is)
  35. Procedural memory
    memory for how to do things, including motor skills
  36. Priming
    our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we’ve encountered similar stimuli
  37. Encoding
    process of getting information into our memory banks
  38. Next in line effect
    When taking turns speaking, information said immediately before your turn often does not get encoded into memory.
  39. Mnemonics
    a learning aid, strategy, or device that enhances recall (e.g.ROYGBIV)
  40. Pegword method
    Associating rhymes or images with words you’re trying to remember
  41. Method of Loci
    Associating imagery of places of locations (e.g. on a route) with words you’re trying to remember
  42. Keyword Method
    When learning a foreign language, associating foreign words with words or images that sound like or remind you of that foreign word
  43. Storage
    process of keeping information in memory
  44. Schema
    organized knowledge structure or mental model that we’ve stored in memory
  45. Retrieval
    reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores (when we’re remembering something and fetching it from our long-term memory stores)
  46. Retrieval cues
    hints that make it easier for us to recall information
  47. Recall
    generating previously remembered information on our own (tends to be more difficult than recognition)
  48. Recognition
    selecting previously remembered info from an array of options
  49. Relearning
    reacquiring knowledge that we’d previously learned but largely forgotten over time
  50. Savings
    once you’ve learned something, it takes less time to refresh your memory on it than it took to learn it the first time
  51. Distributed versus massed practice
    studying information in small increments over time (distributed) versus in large increments over a brief amount of time (massed)
  52. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon
    experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it
  53. Encoding specificity
    phenomenon of remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it
  54. Context-dependent learning
    superior retrieval of memories when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context (when the external environment of your original memories matches the external environment where you’re trying to retrieve those)
  55. State-dependent learning
    superior retrieval of memories when the organism is in the same physiological or psychological state as it was during encoding (when internal physical or psychological states during encoding match those during retrieval)
  56. Mood-dependent learning
    retrieval is better when mood states during encoding and retrieval are the same. May create retrospective bias: our current psychological state (e.g. currently feeling angry) can distort memories of our past
  57. Engram
    a hypothesized physical place in the brain where each memory is stored
  58. Long-term potentiation (LTP)
    gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation
  59. Retrograde amnesia
    loss of memories from our past
  60. Anterograde amnesia
    inability to encode new memories from our experiences
  61. Generalized amnesia
    exceedingly rare—the loss of all past memories (myth perpetuated in Hollywood that amnesics lose all memories, but this is rarely true)