Chapter 2 Anatomy

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Wtiger12
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Chapter 2 Anatomy
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2011-03-01 16:46:36
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Anatomy
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  1. The Study of Cells
    • The study of cells is called what?
    • Cells can only be viewed by what?
    • The use of a microscope is called?
    • Cell size is measured in what?
    • There are 10,000 μm/cm
    • Smallest cell in the body?
    • Largest cell in the body is what?
    • Cytology
    • Microscope
    • Microscopy
    • Micrometers
    • A red blood cell
    • Female egg (oocyte)
  2. Types of Microscopy (3)
    1.uses visible light that passes through the cell?
    2. uses a beam of electrons that passes through the cell. Can magnify about 100X greater than LM?
    3. uses a beam of electrons which is reflected off the surface of a cell to provide a 3D study of the cell surface?
    • Light Microscopy (LM)
    • Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
    • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
  3. Cells Differ in Function(8)
    • Covering
    • Lining
    • Storage
    • Movement
    • Connection
    • Defense
    • Communication
    • Reproduction
  4. A Prototypical Cell
    What are the 3 basic regions or components of all cells in the body?
    • 1. Plasma (cell) membrane
    • 2. Cytoplasm
    • 3. Nucleus
  5. Plasma (Cell) Membrane
    Description?
    Function?
    • Forms an extremely thin outer border of each cell
    • Serves as a selective physical and chemical barrier deciding what comes into and leaves the cell
    • It is the “gatekeeper” that regulates the passage of gases, nutrients and wastes between the internal and external environments of the cell
  6. Composition and Structure of Membranes
    Where is it located?
    Consists of 2 components?
    • outer membrane of the cell
    • 1. Lipids
    • 2. Proteins
  7. Membrane Lipids
    What are the two layers?
    Insoluable in water..What does this mean?
    What are the three types of lipids in the membrane?
    • outer and inner
    • prevents cells from dissolving in water
    • 1. Phospholipids
    • 2. Cholesterol
    • 3. Glycolipids
  8. Phospholipids
    What does each phospholipid molecule have (2 regions)?
    What happens when phospholipids are exposed to an aqueous(water) environment?
    • • A polar(charged) region and non-polar (uncharged)region
    • • they always form aspontaneous phospholipid bilayer
  9. Cholesterol
    Funtion?
    Represents how much of all membrane lipids?
    Glycolipids
    Function?
    Represents how much of all membrane lipids?
    • Cholesterol
    • • Strengthens and stabilizes membrane against temperature extreme
    • • 20%
    • Glycolipids
    • • Lipids with carbohydrate (sugar) molecules attached facing the outside of the membrane forming, in part, the glycocaylx
    • • 5-10%
  10. Membrane Proteins
    Function?
    What are protiens composed of?
    What are the two types of membrane protiens?
    • • Lipids provide the structure to a membrane but proteins give the individual membrane its own unique personality
    • • complex molecules comprised of chains of amino acids
    • 1. Integral
    • 2. Peripheral
  11. Integral Membrane Proteins
    Embedded within what?
    Exposed where?
    What are glycolipids?
    What do the glycoproteins and the glycolipids form?
    • • the phospholipid bilayer
    • • outside and inside of the cell
    • • Protiens that can have carbohydrates (sugars) attached too uter surface
    • • the glycocalyx on the external surface of the plasma membrane
  12. Peripheral Proteins
    Are they imbedded in the lipid bilayer?
    They are loosly attatched to where?
    • • No
    • • The external or internal surface of the plasma membrane
  13. General Functions of the Plasma (Cell) Membrane (4)
    • Communication
    • Intercellular connection
    • Physical barrier
    • Selective permeability
  14. Protein-Specific Functions of thePlasma (Cell) Membrane (6)
    • Transport
    • Intercellular attachment
    • Anchorage for the cytoskeleton
    • Enzyme activity
    • Cell-cell recognition
    • Signal transduction
  15. Membrane Transport
    -Active?
    -Transport?
    • 1. Passive – does not require energy from the cell. Materials move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration (movement down the concentration gradient). This type ofmovement is called diffusion.
    • 2. Active – requires energy from the cell. Materials are moved against a concentration gradient (movement up the concentration gradient).
  16. Passive Transport
    All involve what?
    What don't they require from the cell?
    4 types of diffusion?
    • Diffusion
    • Energy
    • Four types of diffusion:
    • 1. Simple diffusion
    • 2. Osmosis
    • 3. Facilitated diffusion
    • 4. Bulk filtration
  17. Types of Diffusion
    1. Simple diffusion
    Involves what?
    Example?
    • –small and/or nonpolar (uncharged) molecules
    • – A good example is the movement of O2 outof the lungs (higher concentration) into the blood (lower concentration)
    • – The movement of CO2 from the blood(higher concentration) into the lungs (lower concentration) is another example
  18. Types of Diffusion
    2. Osmosis
    Applies to the movement of what?
    Has is the same principle to what other type of diffusion?
    What is that principle?
    • of H2O
    • Simple
    • H2O moves from region of higher concentration to region of lower concentration
  19. Types of Diffusion
    3. Facilitated diffusion
    Involves what?
    Requires what?
    Transport protien?
    • either large and/or polar (charged) molecules
    • specific integral membrane protein
    • Binds to the molecule being“transported”
  20. Types of Diffusion
    4. Bulk Filtration
    Involves what?
    diffusion of both liquids (solvents) and dissolved molecules (solutes)
  21. Active Transport?
    ?
    • • Movement of a molecule against the concentration gradient
    • • Opposite that of passive transport
    • • Requires energy from the cell
    • • Sometimes involves a transport protein
    • • A good example is the ion pump
    • • Both Na+ and K+ are moved in opposite directions against their concentration gradient
  22. Active Transport by Ion Pump
    What is pumped in the cell?
    What is pumped out of the cell?
    What does it require?
    • K+
    • Na+
    • Requires energy
  23. What does bulk transport do?
    What does it require?
    Where can it go?
    • Moves large molecules or bulk structures across the plasma membrane
    • Requires energy from the cell
    • Can go in either direction:
    • 1. Exocytosis – secreted out of the cell
    • 2. Endocytosis – uptake into the cell
  24. Bulk Transport
    1. Exocytosis?
    2. Endocytosis?
    • Materials to be secreted out of cell packaged into vesicles. Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and materials are secreted
    • Opposite that of exocytosis. Materials taken up into the cell packaged into vesicles
  25. Types of Endocytosis
    1. Phagocytosis
    – nonspecific uptake of particles involving the formation of membrane extensions (pseodopodia) that surround particles to be engulfed
  26. Types of Endocytosis
    2. Pinocytosis
    – nonspecific uptake of extracellular fluid
  27. Types of Endocytosis
    3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
    – engulfing of specific molecules that have bound to receptors on the surface of the plasma membrane
  28. 2. Cytoplasm
    • Nonspecific term for all materials, both solid and liquid, between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. This includes (3):
    • Cytosol
    • Organelles
    • Inclusions
  29. Cytosol
    -A viscous, syrup like fluid containing many different dissolved substances such as:
    • Ions
    • Nutrients
    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Amino acids
  30. Organelles
    AKA?
    What does it mean?
    What type of division?
    Clissification of two types?
    • Means “little organs”
    • Many different types of organelles performing different functions
    • A type of division of labor
    • 1. Membrane-bound
    • 2. Non-membrane-bound
  31. Membrane-Bound Organelles
    Surrounded by what?
    Seperates what from what?
    Similar to the plasma membrane. But what is the difference?
    Biochemical activity within organelle is isolated from the cytosol and other organelles. Examples are (5)
    • A membrane
    • contents of organelle from cytosol
    • Proteins are different
    • 1. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • 2. Golgi apparatus
    • 3. Lysosomes
    • 4. Peroxisomes
    • 5. Mitochondria
  32. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    What is it?
    Cisternae?
    • • A network of intracellular membrane-bound tunnels
    • • The enclosed spaces
  33. Smooth ER
    Description?
    Functions (3)?
    • • Walls have a smooth appearance
    • 1. Synthesis, transport and storage of lipids including steroid hormones
    • 2. Metabolism of carbohydrates
    • 3. Detoxification of drugs, alcohol and poisons
  34. Rough ER
    Description? Why does it look like that?
    What is the sole organelles that synthesize proteins within the cell?
    Function?
    • Walls have roughened appearance
    • due to the attachment of ribosome to the outside of the RER membrane
    • Ribosomes
    • Synthesize, transport and store proteins destined to be:
    • 1. Secreted by the cell
    • 2. Incorporated into the plasma membrane
    • 3. Enclosed within lysosomes
  35. Golgi Apparatus
    Composed of what? What do they do?
    Function?
    • Stacked cisternae whose lateral edges bulge, pinch off and give rise to small transport and secretory vesicles
    • Receive proteins and lipids from the RER and modify, sort and package these molecules
  36. Protein Flow through the Golgi Apparatus
    Protiens are synthesized in RER and get packaged where?
    What happens once packaged?
    • Into transport vesicles
    • Transport vesicles pinch off from RER and fuse with the receiving cis-face of the Golgi apparatus. The proteins move between the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus and become modified in the cisternae. Modified proteins are then packaged in secretory vesicles. Secretory vesicles will either participate in exocytosis or become lysosomes within the cell
  37. Lysosomes
    What are they?
    What do they contain?
    Function?
    • Vesicles generated by the Golgi apparatus
    • Enzymes
    • Digest and remove waste products and damaged organelles within the cell (autophagy)
    • • When a cell is dying it releases lysosomal enzymes that digest the cell (autolysis)
  38. Peroxisomes
    What are they?
    Function?
    • Vesicles smaller than lysosomes
    • Use O2 and an enzyme (catalase) to detoxify harmful molecules taken into the cell
  39. Mitochondria
    Description? Why does it look like this?
    What is the matrix?
    Function?
    • Bean-shaped organelles that has a double membrane. The inner membrane is folded to form shelf-like structures called cristae
    • The internal fluid
    • Produce a high energy containing molecule called ATP which is produced on the cristae
  40. Non-Membrane-Bound Organelles..give examples (5):
    • 1. Ribosomes
    • 2. Cytoskeleton
    • 3. Centrosomes and centrioles
    • 4. Cilia and flagella
    • 5. Microvilli
  41. Ribosomes
    Composed of what?
    Function?
    What do free ribosomes do?
    What do fixed ribosomes do?
    • Comprised of a large and small subunit
    • Responsible for all protein synthesis within the cell
    • They float unattached withinthe cytosol
    • Fixed ribosomes are attached to the outer surface of membranes associated with RER
  42. Cytoskeleton..name the components (3):
    • 1. Microfilaments
    • 2. Intermediate filaments
    • 3. Microtubules
  43. Microfilaments
    Function?
    Involved in what?
    • • Maintain and change cell shape
    • • Participate in muscle contraction and cell division
  44. Intermediate Filaments
    Function?
    • Provide structural support and stabilize junctions between apposed cells
  45. Microtubules
    Description?
    They radiate from where?
    Function (3)?
    • • 25nm thick hollow tubes
    • • Radiate from centrosome (discussed next)
    • • Fix organelles in place; Maintain cell shape and rigidity, facilitate cell motility of cilia and flagella
  46. Centrosome?
    Centriole?
    Centriole is involved in what?
    Attched where? And what does it do there?

    • Consists of a pair of centrioles at right angles to each other
    • consists of nine sets of three closely aligned microtubules
    • Involved in organizing microtubules
    • Attached to chromosomes during cell division causing chromosomal migration
  47. Cilia and Flagella
    Both are capable of movement
    Cilia?
    Flagella?
    • Found on cells whose function is to move objects across the surface of those cells i.e. cells of the respiratory tree and oviduct
    • Longer and usually appearal one, help to propel a cell e.g., sperm
  48. Microvilli
    What is it?
    Smaller than what?
    DOES NOT MOVE
    Found where?
    Function?
    • • Extensions of the cell
    • • Much smaller than cilia
    • • Found on surface of cells of the small intestine
    • • Increase the surface area to increase absorption of food
  49. Inclusions
    What is it? Where is it found?
    give examples(2):
    • • Large storage aggregates of complex molecules found in the cytosol
    • 1. Melanin– a brown pigment in skin cells
    • 2. Glycogen – long chains of stored sugars found in liver and skeletal muscle
  50. 3. Nucleus
    What is it?
    What does it do?
    When a cell is not dividing, the nuclear DNA do what?
    When the cell is in the process of dividing, the chromatin does what?
    • Control center for cellular activity
    • Contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), acomplex molecule in which genes are embedded
    • Unwinds into fine filaments called chromatin
    • Coils tightly to form observable structures called chromosomes
  51. Nuclear Envelope
    Structure?
    Function?
    What are nuclear pores?
    • Double membrane structure
    • Controls entry and exit of molecules from nucleus and cytoplasm
    • Selectively permeable channels that allow molecules in or out of the nucleus
  52. Nucleoli
    Description?
    Function?
    • Dark staining bodies within the nucleus
    • Responsible for making the components of the small and large units of the ribosome
  53. Life Cycle of the Cell
    What are the two states the cell can be in?
    What happens in the first stage?
    2nd phase?
    • Interphase or Mitotic phase
    • 1. Interphase – a maintenance (resting) phase between cell divisions where the following activities occur:
    • • Carries out normal activities
    • • Prepares for cell division
    • • Cell spends the majority of time in this phase
    • 2. Mitotic phase – time during which the cell divides
  54. Interphase Stages
    G1 phase?
    S phase?
    G2 phase?
    • • Cells grow, replicate new organelles, produce proteins for replication and centrioles just prior tocell division
    • • “Synthesis” phase where DNA replicates in preparation to cell division
    • • Centriole replication is complete; Other organelle production continues; Enzymes needed for cell division are synthesized
  55. Mitotic Phase
    What happens?
    Two events that happen?
    - Mitosis?
    - Cytokenisis?
    • Two daughter cells are produced that are genetically identical to the original (mother) cell
    • • Two distinct events occur in this phase:
    • 1. Mitosis – duplication of DNA and division of the nucleus
    • 2. Cytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm and the mother cell
  56. Prophase
    What happens?
    • Chromatin becomes super coiled to form chromosomes; Duplicate, identical sister chromatids are conjoined at a region called the centromere; Elongated microtubules called spindle fibers begin to grow from each centriole; End of prophase is marked by the dissolution of the nuclear envelope.
  57. Metaphase
    What happens?
    Chromosomesline up along equatorial plate; Spindle fibers attach to centromere of sister chromatids and form an oval structure array called the mitotic spindle
  58. Anaphase
    What happens?
    • Spindle fibers pull sister chromatids apart to opposite ends of the dividing cell
  59. Telophase
    What happens?
    Nuclear envelope forms around each set ofchromosomes; Chromosomes begin to uncoil and mitotic spindle disappears; A pinched area, the cleavage furrow, appears that will complete the physical division of the daughter cells
  60. Aging and the Cell
    How can cells die (2)?
    • 1. Harmful agents or mechanical damage
    • 2. Programmed cell death or apoptosis

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