Circulatory System: Blood

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Circulatory System: Blood
2011-02-15 10:39:00
Circulatory System Blood

Circulatory System Blood
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  1. What is the difference between circulatory system and cardiovascular system?
    Both include heart and blood vessels but circulatory system has blood
  2. Transport Function of Circulatory System
    • Carry oxygen from lungs to body's tissues
    • Carry carbon dioxide from tissue to lungs
    • Carry metabolic waste to the kidneys
    • Carry hormones from glands to target organs
    • Transport stem cells from bone marrow to target tissues
  3. Protection of Circulatory System
    • Inflammation processes – prevents spread of infection
    • White blood cells destroy microorganisms and cancer cells
    • Antibodies neutralize toxins and destroy pathogens
    • Platelets secrete clotting factors
  4. Regulation of Circulatory System
    • Capillaries distribute fluid evenly in body
    • Buffer pH of extracellular fluids
    • Regulate body temperature
  5. What is blood?
    Plasma and Formed Elements
  6. Plasma
    Fluid basis of blood ("matrix")
  7. Formed Elements
    • Cells and cell fragments
    • Erythrocytes (red blood cells): % = hematocrit
    • Platelets
    • Leukocytes (white blood cells)
    • Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
    • Agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes.
  8. Separated Components of Blood
    Put in a centrifuge to spin them out, cells are heavier and sink, Plasma is on top with 55%, Buffy coat of leukocytes in the middle, and 45% erythrocytes at the bottom
  9. Components of Plasma
    Water, protein, nitrogenous compounds, nutrients, gases, electrolytes, and hormones.
  10. Albumin
    Primary plasma protein; transports solutes, buffers pH
  11. Globulins
    Plasma protein that transports solutes and has immune functions
  12. Fibrinogen
    Plasma protein that promotes clotting (plasma minus fibrinogen = serum)
  13. Nitrogenous Compounds (non protein components of blood)
    • Free amino acids (dietary protein or tissue)
    • Nitrogenous wastes (urea produced by catabolism)
  14. Nutrients (non protein components of blood)
    • Glucose, vitamins, fats, cholestorol, phospholipids, minerals
    • Dissolved O2, CO2, and nitrogen
    • Electrolytes (primarily Na+)
  15. Viscosity
    • Resistance of fluid to flow due to cohesion of particles
    • Viscosity of blood is a result of the red blood cells and protein
    • Proper viscosity is important for blood flow through circulatory system
  16. Osmolarity
    • A measure of the number of particles that can't pass through blood vessel walls
    • If too high, blood absorbs too much water (increasing blood pressure)
    • If too low, blood doesn't absorb enough water (decreasing blood pressure)
  17. Plasma Protein Difficiency
    • Extreme protein deficiency decreases osmolarity
    • Fluid moves into interstitial spaces.
  18. Hemopoiesis
    • Production of blood, especially formed elements
    • Average adult produces 400 billion platelets, 200 billion RBC, 10 billion WBC every day
  19. Hemopoietic Tissues Produce Blood Cells
    • Yolk Sac: stem cells for first blood cells
    • Liver: until birth
    • Spleen: lymphocytes
    • Red Bone Marrow: all formed elements
    • Thymus: T Cells
  20. Erythrocytes (RBC)
    • Carry oxygen from lungs to tissues throughout body
    • Carry carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs
  21. RBC Structure and Function
    • Increased surface area/volume for lots of gas diffusion across membrane
    • Cells are flexible to get through narrow capillaries
    • Lots of hemoglobin (280 million molecules per RBC) to help carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • Lots of carbonic anhydrase in cytoplasm to neutralize carbon dioxide
  22. Hemoglobin
    • One Molecule: Four globulins, four heme groups (bind oxygen)
    • Heme binds O2 when O2 levels are high (lungs), releases it when O2 levels are low (tissues)
  23. Mesures of RBC/Hemoglobinn
    • Hematocrit: percentage of blood composed of RBC
    • Hemoglobin concentration: percentage of blood composed of hemoglobin
    • RBC count
    • Higher RBC/hemoglobin amounts mean blood can carry more oxygen
  24. Sex Differences in RBCs
    • Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and RBC count lower in women
    • Androgens stimulate RBC production
    • Women have periodic menstrual loss
    • Hematocrit inversely proportional to percentage of body fat
  25. Erythrocyte Production (erythropoiesis)
    • 2.5 million RBCs produced per second
    • Average lifespan of 120 days
    • Development takes 3-5 days: Reduction in size, synthesis of hemoglobin, loss of nucleus
  26. Nutritional Requirements for Erythropoiesis
    • Iron: Part of Heme group
    • Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid: needed for rapid cells division and DNA synthesis
    • Vitamin C and copper: Cofactors for enzymes synthesizing hemoglobin
  27. Anemia
    • Body doesn't have enough RBCs or hemoglobin
    • 3 causes: Inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis (kidney failure or Iron/Vitamin B12 deficiency), Hemorrhagic causes (bleeding), or hemolytic causes (RBC destruction)
  28. Results of Anemia
    • Tissue hypoxia
    • Reduced blood osmolarity (edema)
    • Reduced blood viscosity (blood pressure drops)
  29. Sickle-Cell Disease
    • Recessive allele modifies shape of hemoglobin
    • Hb doesn't bind O2 well
    • RBC change shape, clump together, and block blood vessels
  30. Erythrocyte Homeostasis
    • Drop in RBC count causes kidney to stimulate erythropoiesis (through release of erythropoietin)
    • Increases cell division rate
    • Increases Hb production rate
    • Stimulating factors: low O2 levels, high altitude, increase in exercise, loss of lung tissue
  31. Blood Doping
    • Increasing number of RBCs in an attempt to increase oxygen delivery to muscles
    • Originally athletes would inject themselves with their own or donor RBCs
    • Now use injection of erythropoietin
    • Problems when blood is too viscous, though
  32. Biliverdin and Bilirubin
    • Greenish-yellow bruises a result of biliverdin and bilirubin buildup
    • Jaundice is symptom resulting for inability to metabolize or excrete bilirubin
  33. Blood Types
    • Based on antigens attached to RBC surface
    • Antigen: any molecule that's on the surface of a red blood cell that produces an immune response
  34. Antibody Production
    • Globulins produce antibodies (agglutinins) to antigens
    • Body doesn't produce antibodies to antigens that it naturally has
  35. Agglutination
    Clumping of RBC after antibodies bind to antigens on RBC
  36. Patient with Type O
    • Has anti A and anti B
    • Receives from: O only
    • Universal doner
  37. Patient with Type A Blood
    • Has anti B
    • Receives from: A and O
  38. Patient with Type B
    • Has anti A
    • Receives from: B or O
  39. Patient with Type AB Blood
    • Doesn't have any antibodies
    • Can receive any type of blood (universal receiver)
  40. Rh Factor
    • Rh is another antigen
    • The positive or negative part of your blood type
    • Rh negative people don't normally produce antibodies against Rh factor
  41. Hemolytic Disease of Newborn
    • Rh negative mother, Rh positive baby
    • Blood is mixed during birth
    • Once exposed, she will start producing anti Rh antibodies
    • Can cause red blood cell destruction in the baby.