Bio245 Lab Exm 1
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Bio245 Lab Exm 1
Bio245 Bio245 Lab Lab Intro Human Body
Bio245 Lab Exm 1- Intro To Human Body
The study of body structures
Define gross anatomy
The study of the structural features of the body without the aid of a microscope
The study of microscopic structures
The study of how the body functions & of the work that cells must do to keep the body stable & operating efficiently
The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment
Give an example of an item that represents the Chemical Level of organization
Complex protein molecule
Give an example of an item that represents the Cellular Level of Organization
Heart muscle cell
Give an example of an item that represents the Tissue Level of Organization
Cardiac muscle tissue
Give an example of an item that represents the Organ Level of organization
Give an example of an item that represents the Organ System level of organization
Give an example of an item that represents the Organism level of organization
Explain Anatomical position
Standing erect w/feet pointed forward, the eyes straight ahead & the palms of the hands facing frwrd w/upper limbs at the sides
What does supine mean?
When a person in anatomical position is lying on their back
What does prone mean?
When a person in anatomical position is lying face down
Anterior is aka?
Ventral or (Inferior) in animals
The front; before
The belly side (eqiv to anterior in humans)
The back; behind
The back (equiv to posterior in humans)
Cranial or cephalic
Above; at a higher level (in humans twrd the head)
The tail (coccyx in humans)
Below; at a lower level
Toward the body's longitudinal axis; toward the midsagittal plane
Away from the body's longitudinal axis; away from the midsagittal plane
Toward an attached base
Away from an attached base
At, near, or relatively close to the body surface
Farther from the body surface
Part of chest only rght above breasts
Abdomen, Belly, Stomach
Acromial (scapular) region
Front of Elbow
Back of Knee
Sole of Foot
Name the 4 quadrants
RUQ, RLQ, LUQ, LLQ
Right Upper Quadrant
Right Lower Quadrant
Left Upper Quadrant
Left Lower Quadrant
From rght to lft what are the 9 thoracic regions?
What does RHR stand for?
Right Hypochondriac Region
What does RLR stand for?
Right Lumbar Region
What does RIR stand for?
Right Inguinal Region
What does LHR stand for?
Left Hypochondriac Region
What does LLR stand for?
Left Lumbar Region
What does LIR stand for?
Left Inguinal Region
What does ER stand for?
What does UR stand for?
What does HR stand for?
Liver is in which quadrant?
Urinary Bladder is in which quadrant?
Gallbladder is in which quadrant?
Stomach is in which quadrant?
Appendix is in which quadrant?
Lrg intestine is in which quadrant?
Spleen is in which quadrant?
Small Intestine is in which quadrant?
Horizontal sectioning across the body separating Superior & Inferior sections
Vertical sectioning, separating body/organ into L&R portions (
Vertical sectioning that
divides structures into L&R portions
Vertical sectioning, separating into L&R portions that produces
Define/Describe Frontal (coronal)
Vertical sectioning that divides body into Anterior and Posterior sections
A diagnal cut (used often in clinical settings)
Draw pic & label the 9 Abdominopelvic Regions.
Dorsal Cavity located?
It's a combo of Cranial & Spinal cavities grouped together so it starts at the head and ends at the end of the spine
Label/Describe Specific location of the Cranial Cavity
The space inside the oval cranium of the skull that surrounds & safeguards the brain
Label/Describe Specific location of the Spinal Cavity
It's a long, narrow canal that continues through the vertebral column on dorsal. Starts at base of skull and end before coccyx
What organ is in Cranial Cavity?
What organ is in the Spinal Cavity?
Spinal Cord (Nervous System)
Describe location of Ventral Cavity
Entire body trunk, anterior to the vertebral column and posterior to abdom muscle wall & sternum (breastbone)
Ventral cavity is split into 2 major subcavities?
What are they?
Thoracic Cavity and Abdominopelvic Cavity
Subdivisions of Thoracic cavity?
Pleural cavities, Mediastinum, Pericardial cavity
Subdivisions of Abdominopelvic cavity?
Abdominal cavity, Pelvic cavity, Diaphragm
Example of structure in Pleural Cavitiy
Where is the Pleural cavity?
On each side of the chest
Where is the Mediastinum?
Between the Pleural cavities
What structures are in the Mediastinum?
Inferior portions of the esophagus & thymus
Where is the Pericardial Cavity?
In the Mediastinum
What is in the Pericardial Cavity?
Where is the Abdominal cavity?
entire front of trunk ( "extends from inferior surface of diaphragm to the level of the superior margins of the pelvis")
What structure(s) does the Abdominal Cavity contain?
Liver, Stomach, Spleen, S & L Intestines
Where is the Pelvic Cavity?
"Portion of Ventral Cavity inferior to abdominal cavity"
What structure(s) does the Pelvic Cavity contain?
Urinary bladder, various reproductive oragans
Where is the Diaphragm?
Going across the body separating the Abdominal & Thoracic cavities
A muscle wall located in the Ventral Cavity separating the 2 subdividing cavities Thoracic & Abdominopelvic
What structure(s) does the Diaphragm contain?
None, it is a muscle wall
Define Serous membrane
A double layered membrane that isolates an organ & reduces friction & abrasion on the organ's surface
Fxns of Serous membrane:
1) Lubricates surfaces; prevents friction
2) Anchors organs in on spot
3) Lines Ventral Cavity
Compare Visceral & Parietal layers of serous membranes
Visceral layer= right on organ's surface
Parietal layer= closer to or anchored on body wall (creating a space)
Location of Pericardial (serous) membrane
Around the Heart
Location of Pleural (serous) membrane
Around the Lungs
Location of Peritoneal (serous) membrane?
Lines the walls of the abdominal cavity & holds certain organs in place (stomach, spleen, gall bladder)---like pleural cavity in thoracic cavity
Inflammation of the pericardial lining
(may cause accumulation of pericardial fluid)
Inflammation of the pleural cavities
(may cause a sound knwn as pleural rub)
Inflammation of the peritoneum after infection or injury
Where can you find Simple squamous epithelium?
Air sacs, lining of blood vessels
Where can you find Stratified squamous epithelium?
Lining of the mouth, epidermis (skin)
Where can you find Simple cuboidal epithelium?
Kidneys, liver, pancreas
Where can you find Stratified cuboidal epithelium?
Sweat glands, sweat gland ducts
Where can you find Simple columnar epithelium? (with or w/o cilia)
Where can you find Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium?
Trachea, Larynx (a lot of cilia)
Where can you find Transitional epithelium?
Lines the urinary structures (bladder & ureters)
Name the types of Epithelium
-Simple squamous epithelium
-Stratified squamous epithelium
-Simple cuboidal epithelium
-Stratified cuboidal epithelium
-Simple columnar epithelium
-Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium
How many kinds of Muscle tissue are there?
What are they?
3---Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
Location of Skeletal muscle tissue
It is attached to bones
Location of Smooth muscle tissue
Inside hollow organs (stomach, intestines, uterus, blood vessel)
Location of Cardiac muscle tissue
Forms the walls of the Heart
Give Acronym for 11 Connective Tissues
What is my acronym for MARADE HEFBB
Used to remember CTs
I am= Mischievious, Amazing, Ridiculous, Adventurous, Determined, Energetic
Helpful, Friendly, Bold, Beautiful
What does the acronym MARADE HEFBB actually stand for?
Names of Connective Tissue:
Mesenchyme, Areolar CT, Reticular CT, Adipose CT, Dense regular CT, Elastic CT, Hyaline cartilage, Elastic cartilage, Fibrous cartilage, Bone-Compact bone, Blood tissue
Which slide may say "white CT"?
Dense regular CT
Which slide may say "yellow CT"?
In Blood CT, what is included?
Location of Mesenchyme
In the developing Embryo
Location of Nervous tissue
98% is found in Brain & Spinal Cord
Location of Neurons
In nervous tissue which is mostly in brain & spinal cord
Location of Neuroglial cells
Also located in Nervous tissue which is mostly in brain & spinal cord..Little cells surrounding the Neurons
Location of Areolar CT
On dermis of skin & in serous membranes
Location of Reticular CT
Inside Liver, Spleen, & Bone marrow
Location of Adipose CT
Location of Dense regular CT
Location of Elastic CT
Vocal cords, Blood vessel walls
Location of Hyaline cartilage
Forms part of Nasal septum
Location of Elastic cartilage
Epiglottis, Larnx, Auricle of external ear
Location of Fibrous cartilage
Pads within knee joint
Location of Compact Bone
Forms the Skeleton
Location of Blood tissue
Throughout Entire Body