Card Set Information
The min. requirement for SPL is what?
ASHA is the acronym for what?
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
What is ASHA?
A non-profit association which represents speech-language pathologists and audiologist. It works to protect the consumers of our services
When did ASHA start?
CCC stands for what?
Certificate of Clinical Competence....and is awarded by ASHA when the requirements are met.
What 3 states DO NOT regulate SLPs?
Are the CCC a requirement?
They are voluntary but if you do not get them most places will NOT hire you.
Process of transmission and exchange of information, feelings and attitude
: Men's bathroom sign on door
Speaking vs. Non speaking
definition of language
A system of symbols and codes used in communication or as a form of social behavior shaped and maintained by a verbal community
definition of language
Language is a socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and rule governed combinations of those symbols.
The medium of
communication that employs a linguistic code. Includes the motor act of respiration, phonation, articulation, and resonance.
SPEECH MUST BE ORAL
Made up of 3 things:
>frequency of the voice
>Modification of the voice as it leaves the Larynx
>Loudness of the voice
What is a phoneme?
Smallest linguistic unit of sound
Describes the production, perception, and classification of speech sounds
Rules for a set of sounds of the language and for their combination into syllables and words.
(These are our phonotactic rules)
What are the 4 components of language?
IS NOT HOW TO SPELL WORDS!
it is...how words are put together to form words.
It indicates how words are formed and provides a bridge between phonology and syntax
The sounds of our language
The grammer of our language
SYNTAX AND GRAMMER GO TOGETHER
The arrangement of words in our language
What is a morpheme?
The smalles unit of language that can carry meaning
can stand alone and have meaning
: ink, mother, write, radio, the, past
Must be joined to another morpheme to convey meaning
: -ing, -ed, un-, 's
Looking at the meaning of words and word groups in languages
Studying the development and changes in ^^
The study of the rules underlyingthe functional/social use of language
2 main areas of study...
The two main areas of study for pragmatics is...
: Goals or functions of language or reasons why ppl speak.
: greeting, requesting, answering, etc
Rules of Conversation
: Study of the influence of a linguist/nonlinguistic context of what a person says and how they say it.
: how to enter and initiate a conversation
What are the 3 components of language?
USE-pragmatics(how we use the words)
Syntax, morphology, phonology
Easy smooth speech
Speech at which we talk
Timing of speech
Rate and Rhythm may be referred to as...
Stress on a word, intonation, pausing in a sentence
gestures, eye gaze, proxemics (how close u are to the speaker)
Any impairment to decode or encode a symbol system.
May involve speech &/or language processes
MAY AFFECT A PERSON OF ANY AGE
The study of a cause
No known etiology
No demonstrated organic or neurologic cause but may be learned
Defect in the neurophysiological or speech mechanism
Born with the disorder
: cleft pallet
Disorder is present somtime after there has been a period of NORMAL communication
Something happened that stops the progression, or it gets worse
Disorder presents itself during the course of development of the child;
there was never a point at which the communication was better than it is at the point of diagnosis
CHILD WAS BORN WITH IT
PPL who speak or understand 2 language
PPL who speak more than 2 languages
A group that is numerically smaller than the comparitive group
Minority children (<5) will exceed non-minority children by....
The hispanic population has increased by ___%
States with the largest % increase in hispanic population are...
Arkansas, Nevada, NC, Georgia, Nebraska
Only ___% of ASHA certified professionals are from racial/ethnic backgrounds
refers to the phonological, suprasegmental, and vocal characteristics of a spoken language.
Influences by regional and language differences.
variations of a specific language.
Includes not only surface structure variations but the deep structure
NOT CONSIDERED DISORDED COMMUNICATION BUT DIFFERENCES
IE: North vs. South in Oklahoma has different speaking
A dialect pattern
Gender based dialect
gender sometimes determines the vocab you use.
Ability to change in speaking situation.
: talking to a princpal vs. talking to a friend
One example of standard american language is...
Who can refer someone to a SPL?
teacher or other school personnel
First step to assessing a communication disorder:
-obtaining case history (client, family disorder info)
Second step to assessing a CD:
Diagnostic test day
further interview client/family member
-or ofacial exam
-speech and language sample
-formal testing specific to the area(s) which need investigation
third step to assessing a CD:
Post diagnosis (what we did, why and the results)
interp conference- recommendations are made
-written report disseminates
An informed predicition of the outcome of a disorder
IE:5 yr ols mom wants to know what will happen if disorder is left untreated and if therapy will help.
Supply oxygen to the blood
generating source for speech production
also prevents foreign objects from entering the lungs
Overall primary purpose of PON is:
pathways for air, food; chewing and swallowing
To the side
coming to the midline
pulled away from the midline
come toward the midline
Inner unit of the respiratory subduvision is made up of what two parts?
Trachea(windpipe)- Semerigid tube, its flexible
Bronchi from lungs
Bronchioles- opens into alveoli in lungs
Outer unit- chest wall
Muscles of inhalation...
Found above the diaphram
Muscles of exhalation
Found below the diaphram in lower abdomen
Posterior (behind) to the respiratory system (or behind larynx)is the...
Esphogus (food tube)
Larynx (voicebox) is made up of: (CTACEH)
Arytenoid cartilage (pyramids)
True vocal folds
1cm long in female
1 1/2cm long in male
Opening between vocal folds, it is not a stucture but an
AKA false vocal folds
1st region of pharyngeal segment: Laryngopharynx
Behind and above larynx
2nd region of pharyngeal segment: Oropharynx
Behind oral cavity
3rd region of pharyngeal segment: Nasopharynx
behind nasal cavity
made up of overlapping constricor muscles
3 boundaries of pharyngeal segment:
: larynx and esophogus
: Oral and nasal cavity
: Spinal Column
Oral segment contain...
Hard palate, teeth, alveolar ridge, velum, lips, cheek, tongue, mandible
Nasal Segment contains...
(quiet inhalation aka tidal)
As thoracic volume____; Air pressure_____
What produces the energy source for speech?
Movement and pressure of air from lungs
Passive recoil forces:
What happens when your doing passive breathing
In speech breathing muscles do what to the rib cage?
Pull downward so we can get extended speaking time
It moves air out of lungs
In quiet breathing what the cycles per minute for males and females?
14-18 for males
16-20 for females (cause systems are smaller)
In speech breathing the typical adults produces____syllables per second
OPEN, NOT VIBRATE- lets air pass thru
used for all voiceless sounds
vocal folds open and close rapidly to set up phonation
used for all voice sounds
*Adult male 90-180 cps
*female 150-300cps (cause females have higher pitched voices)
cycles per minute
Vocal chords come together and open and close...but not close
Complete closure, buildup of subglottic air pressure then sudden release
IE:Bottle...take out the tt
IE:Mountain...take out the t
Larynx (voicebox) generates the______
Phonotory source (sound of our words)
The quality of the sound
The basic structure (unit) of the nervous system is the...
Neuron is made up of....
Axon- carries info away
Dendrites- carries info to
A nerve that carries info
to the brain
is also described as....
Afferent or sensory
A nerve that carries into away from the brain is also descirbed as...
Efferent or motor
carry info from one neuron to another...
its a gap
Central nervous system is made up of the...
Brain and spinal cord
The 3 major subdivisions of the brain are...
4 major lobes of the brain
- intellect, planning and motor for speech
- Recieves and processes auditory and hearing sensation, memory
- storage of info, recieves sensory impulses
- Visual perception and recognition
Ridge of the cortex is the...
Shallow valley is the...
largest % of neurons originating from one side of the brain and control the other side of the body is...
Same side contral
Peripheral nervous system consists of 12 paris of....
and 31 pairs of....
There are _____cranial nerves that are important for speech and hearing
Sensory to face
(deals with hearing)
Audition and equilubrium
Minimal motor functions
mainly sensory nerve
taste, gag reflex
Swallow stimulation, pharynx
(equally sensory and motor functions)
NO sensory functions
head and shoulders
Minimal sensory functions