Card Set Information

2010-02-11 01:25:57

Test one
Show Answers:

  1. The min. requirement for SPL is what?
    Master's Degree
  2. ASHA is the acronym for what?
    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
  3. What is ASHA?
    A non-profit association which represents speech-language pathologists and audiologist. It works to protect the consumers of our services
  4. When did ASHA start?
  5. CCC stands for what?
    Certificate of Clinical Competence....and is awarded by ASHA when the requirements are met.
  6. What 3 states DO NOT regulate SLPs?
    • Colorado
    • Michigan
    • South Dokota
  7. Are the CCC a requirement?
    They are voluntary but if you do not get them most places will NOT hire you.
  8. Communication
    Process of transmission and exchange of information, feelings and attitude
  9. Language
    • Arbitrary symbol-gesture
    • Ie: Men's bathroom sign on door
    • Can be oral or non-oral
    • ie: Speaking vs. Non speaking
  10. Hedges definition of language
    A system of symbols and codes used in communication or as a form of social behavior shaped and maintained by a verbal community
  11. Owen's definition of language
    Language is a socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and rule governed combinations of those symbols.
  12. Speech
    • The medium of oral communication that employs a linguistic code. Includes the motor act of respiration, phonation, articulation, and resonance.
  13. Voice
    • Made up of 3 things:
    • Pitch>frequency of the voice
    • Resonance>Modification of the voice as it leaves the Larynx
    • Intensity>Loudness of the voice
  14. What is a phoneme?
    Smallest linguistic unit of sound
  15. Phonetics
    Describes the production, perception, and classification of speech sounds
  16. Phonology
    • Rules for a set of sounds of the language and for their combination into syllables and words.
    • (These are our phonotactic rules)
  17. What are the 4 components of language?
    • Morphology
    • Syntax
    • Semantics
    • Pragmatics
  18. Morphology
    • it words are put together to form words.
    • It indicates how words are formed and provides a bridge between phonology and syntax
  19. Phonology
    The sounds of our language
  20. Syntax
    • The grammer of our language
    • The arrangement of words in our language
  21. What is a morpheme?
    The smalles unit of language that can carry meaning
  22. free Morphemes
    • can stand alone and have meaning
    • IE: ink, mother, write, radio, the, past
  23. Bound Morphemes
    • Must be joined to another morpheme to convey meaning
    • IE: -ing, -ed, un-, 's
  24. Semantics
    • The meaning
    • Looking at the meaning of words and word groups in languages
    • Studying the development and changes in ^^
  25. Pragmatics
    • The use
    • The study of the rules underlyingthe functional/social use of language
    • 2 main areas of study...
  26. The two main areas of study for pragmatics is...
    • Language functions: Goals or functions of language or reasons why ppl speak.
    • IE: greeting, requesting, answering, etc
    • Rules of Conversation: Study of the influence of a linguist/nonlinguistic context of what a person says and how they say it.
    • IE: how to enter and initiate a conversation
  27. What are the 3 components of language?
    • FORM
    • CONTENT- semantics
    • USE-pragmatics(how we use the words)
  28. Form
    Syntax, morphology, phonology
  29. Fluency
    Easy smooth speech
  30. Rate
    Speech at which we talk
  31. Rhythm
    Timing of speech
  32. Rate and Rhythm may be referred to as...
  33. Paralinguistic features
    Stress on a word, intonation, pausing in a sentence
  34. nonvocal features
    gestures, eye gaze, proxemics (how close u are to the speaker)
  35. Communication disorder
    • Any impairment to decode or encode a symbol system.
    • May involve speech &/or language processes
  36. Etiology
    • The cause
    • The study of a cause
  37. Idiopathic
    No known etiology
  38. Functional
    No demonstrated organic or neurologic cause but may be learned
  39. Organic
    Defect in the neurophysiological or speech mechanism
  40. Congenital
    • Born with the disorder
    • IE: cleft pallet
  41. Aquired
    • Disorder is present somtime after there has been a period of NORMAL communication
    • Something happened that stops the progression, or it gets worse
  42. Development
    • Disorder presents itself during the course of development of the child;
    • there was never a point at which the communication was better than it is at the point of diagnosis
  43. Bilingual
    PPL who speak or understand 2 language
  44. Multilingual...POLYGOT
    PPL who speak more than 2 languages
  45. Minority
    A group that is numerically smaller than the comparitive group
  46. Minority children (<5) will exceed non-minority children by....
  47. The hispanic population has increased by ___%
  48. States with the largest % increase in hispanic population are...
    Arkansas, Nevada, NC, Georgia, Nebraska
  49. Only ___% of ASHA certified professionals are from racial/ethnic backgrounds
  50. Accent
    • refers to the phonological, suprasegmental, and vocal characteristics of a spoken language.
    • Influences by regional and language differences.
  51. Dialect
    • variations of a specific language.
    • Includes not only surface structure variations but the deep structure
  52. Geographic region
    IE: North vs. South in Oklahoma has different speaking
  53. Teenelects
    • A dialect pattern
    • SLANG
  54. genderelect
    • Gender based dialect
    • gender sometimes determines the vocab you use.
  55. Code Switch
    • Ability to change in speaking situation.
    • IE: talking to a princpal vs. talking to a friend
  56. One example of standard american language is...
    Black English
  57. Who can refer someone to a SPL?
    • Self/parents
    • teacher or other school personnel
    • physician
    • other professionals
  58. First step to assessing a communication disorder:
    • pre-diagnostic
    • -obtaining case history (client, family disorder info)
    • -Telephone interview
  59. Second step to assessing a CD:
    • Diagnostic test day
    • -further interview client/family member
    • -or ofacial exam
    • -hearing screening
    • -speech and language sample
    • -formal testing specific to the area(s) which need investigation
  60. third step to assessing a CD:
    • Post diagnosis (what we did, why and the results)
    • -interp conference- recommendations are made
    • -written report disseminates
  61. Prognosis
    • An informed predicition of the outcome of a disorder
    • IE:5 yr ols mom wants to know what will happen if disorder is left untreated and if therapy will help.
  62. Respitory
    • Supply oxygen to the blood
    • generating source for speech production
  63. Laryngeal
    • Larynx-vibrates
    • also prevents foreign objects from entering the lungs
  64. PON
    • 3 cavaties:
    • Pharynx
    • Oral
    • Nasal
  65. Overall primary purpose of PON is:
    • Life support
    • pathways for air, food; chewing and swallowing
  66. Lateral
    To the side
  67. Medial
    coming to the midline
  68. Posterior
  69. anterior
  70. abducted
    pulled away from the midline
  71. adducted
    come toward the midline
  72. Inner unit of the respiratory subduvision is made up of what two parts?
    • Lungs
    • respiratory passages
  73. respiratory passages
    • Trachea(windpipe)- Semerigid tube, its flexible
    • Bronchi from lungs
    • Bronchioles- opens into alveoli in lungs
  74. Outer unit- chest wall
    • Rib cage
    • Diaphram
    • Sternum
    • Etc..
  75. Muscles of inhalation...
    Found above the diaphram
  76. Muscles of exhalation
    Found below the diaphram in lower abdomen
  77. Posterior (behind) to the respiratory system (or behind larynx)is the...
    Esphogus (food tube)
  78. Larynx (voicebox) is made up of: (CTACEH)
    • Cricoid cartilage
    • Thyriod Cartilage
    • Arytenoid cartilage (pyramids)
    • Cricoarytenoid joint
    • Epigolottis (cartilage)
    • Hyoid bone
  79. True vocal folds
    • 1cm long in female
    • 1 1/2cm long in male
  80. Glottis
    Opening between vocal folds, it is not a stucture but an opening
  81. Ventricular folds
    AKA false vocal folds
  82. 1st region of pharyngeal segment: Laryngopharynx
    • AKA Hypopharanx
    • Behind and above larynx
  83. 2nd region of pharyngeal segment: Oropharynx
    Behind oral cavity
  84. 3rd region of pharyngeal segment: Nasopharynx
    • behind nasal cavity
    • made up of overlapping constricor muscles
  85. 3 boundaries of pharyngeal segment:
    • Inferior: larynx and esophogus
    • Anterior: Oral and nasal cavity
    • Posterior: Spinal Column
  86. Oral segment contain...
    Hard palate, teeth, alveolar ridge, velum, lips, cheek, tongue, mandible
  87. Nasal Segment contains...
    • Nose
    • sinues (cavaties)
  88. (quiet inhalation aka tidal)
    As thoracic volume____; Air pressure_____
    increases; decreases
  89. What produces the energy source for speech?
    Movement and pressure of air from lungs
  90. Passive recoil forces:
    What happens when your doing passive breathing
  91. In speech breathing muscles do what to the rib cage?
    • Pull downward so we can get extended speaking time
    • It moves air out of lungs
  92. In quiet breathing what the cycles per minute for males and females?
    • 14-18 for males
    • 16-20 for females (cause systems are smaller)
  93. In speech breathing the typical adults produces____syllables per second
    Vocal folds...
    • OPEN, NOT VIBRATE- lets air pass thru
    • used for all voiceless sounds
    • =phonation
    • vocal folds open and close rapidly to set up phonation
    • used for all voice sounds
    • *Adult male 90-180 cps
    • *female 150-300cps (cause females have higher pitched voices)
  96. CPM
    cycles per minute
  97. Constricted airway
    • Whispering
    • Vocal chords come together and open and close...but not close
  98. Complete closure, buildup of subglottic air pressure then sudden release
    • IE:Bottle...take out the tt
    • IE:Mountain...take out the t
  99. Larynx (voicebox) generates the______
    Phonotory source (sound of our words)
  100. Pharynex modifies...
    The quality of the sound
  101. The basic structure (unit) of the nervous system is the...
  102. Neuron is made up of....
    • Cell body
    • Axon- carries info away
    • Dendrites- carries info to
    • Mylin Sheath
  103. A nerve that carries info to the brain is also described as....
    Afferent or sensory
  104. A nerve that carries into away from the brain is also descirbed as...
    Efferent or motor
  105. Synapses
    • carry info from one neuron to another...
    • its a gap
  106. Central nervous system is made up of the...
    Brain and spinal cord
  107. The 3 major subdivisions of the brain are...
    • Brain stem
    • Cerebellum
    • Cerebruem
  108. 4 major lobes of the brain
    • Frontal - intellect, planning and motor for speech
    • Temporal- Recieves and processes auditory and hearing sensation, memory
    • Parietal- storage of info, recieves sensory impulses
    • Occipital- Visual perception and recognition
  109. Ridge of the cortex is the...
  110. Shallow valley is the...
    • Sulcus
    • Fissures
  111. Brocas area
    Speech production
  112. Weirnicke's Area
    Speech comprehension
  113. largest % of neurons originating from one side of the brain and control the other side of the body is...
    Contralateral innervation
  114. Same side contral
    Ipsilateral innervation
  115. Peripheral nervous system consists of 12 paris of....
    and 31 pairs of....
    • Cranial nerves
    • Spinal nerves
  116. There are _____cranial nerves that are important for speech and hearing
  117. cranial nerve
    • Sensory to face
    • Masication (chewing)
  118. cranial nerve
    • Taste (gustation)
    • Facial muscles
  119. cranial nerves
    • (deals with hearing)
    • Audition and equilubrium
    • Minimal motor functions
    • mainly sensory nerve
  120. cranial nerve
    • taste, gag reflex
    • Swallow stimulation, pharynx
  121. cranial nerve
    • pharynx, larynx
    • pharynx, larynx
    • (equally sensory and motor functions)
  122. Cranial nerve
    • NO sensory functions
    • head and shoulders
  123. Cranial Nerve
    • Minimal sensory functions
    • Tongue