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The min. requirement for SPL is what?
ASHA is the acronym for what?
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
What is ASHA?
A non-profit association which represents speech-language pathologists and audiologist. It works to protect the consumers of our services
When did ASHA start?
CCC stands for what?
Certificate of Clinical Competence....and is awarded by ASHA when the requirements are met.
What 3 states DO NOT regulate SLPs?
- South Dokota
Are the CCC a requirement?
They are voluntary but if you do not get them most places will NOT hire you.
Process of transmission and exchange of information, feelings and attitude
- Arbitrary symbol-gesture
- Ie: Men's bathroom sign on door
- Can be oral or non-oral
- ie: Speaking vs. Non speaking
Hedges definition of language
A system of symbols and codes used in communication or as a form of social behavior shaped and maintained by a verbal community
Owen's definition of language
Language is a socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and rule governed combinations of those symbols.
- The medium of oral communication that employs a linguistic code. Includes the motor act of respiration, phonation, articulation, and resonance.
- SPEECH MUST BE ORAL
- Made up of 3 things:
- Pitch>frequency of the voice
- Resonance>Modification of the voice as it leaves the Larynx
- Intensity>Loudness of the voice
What is a phoneme?
Smallest linguistic unit of sound
Describes the production, perception, and classification of speech sounds
- Rules for a set of sounds of the language and for their combination into syllables and words.
- (These are our phonotactic rules)
What are the 4 components of language?
- IS NOT HOW TO SPELL WORDS!
- it is...how words are put together to form words.
- It indicates how words are formed and provides a bridge between phonology and syntax
The sounds of our language
- The grammer of our language
- SYNTAX AND GRAMMER GO TOGETHER
- The arrangement of words in our language
What is a morpheme?
The smalles unit of language that can carry meaning
- can stand alone and have meaning
- IE: ink, mother, write, radio, the, past
- Must be joined to another morpheme to convey meaning
- IE: -ing, -ed, un-, 's
- The meaning
- Looking at the meaning of words and word groups in languages
- Studying the development and changes in ^^
- The use
- The study of the rules underlyingthe functional/social use of language
- 2 main areas of study...
The two main areas of study for pragmatics is...
- Language functions: Goals or functions of language or reasons why ppl speak.
- IE: greeting, requesting, answering, etc
- Rules of Conversation: Study of the influence of a linguist/nonlinguistic context of what a person says and how they say it.
- IE: how to enter and initiate a conversation
What are the 3 components of language?
- CONTENT- semantics
- USE-pragmatics(how we use the words)
Syntax, morphology, phonology
Easy smooth speech
Speech at which we talk
Rate and Rhythm may be referred to as...
Stress on a word, intonation, pausing in a sentence
gestures, eye gaze, proxemics (how close u are to the speaker)
- Any impairment to decode or encode a symbol system.
- May involve speech &/or language processes
- MAY AFFECT A PERSON OF ANY AGE
- The cause
- The study of a cause
No known etiology
No demonstrated organic or neurologic cause but may be learned
Defect in the neurophysiological or speech mechanism
- Born with the disorder
- IE: cleft pallet
- Disorder is present somtime after there has been a period of NORMAL communication
- Something happened that stops the progression, or it gets worse
- Disorder presents itself during the course of development of the child;
- there was never a point at which the communication was better than it is at the point of diagnosis
- CHILD WAS BORN WITH IT
PPL who speak or understand 2 language
PPL who speak more than 2 languages
A group that is numerically smaller than the comparitive group
Minority children (<5) will exceed non-minority children by....
The hispanic population has increased by ___%
States with the largest % increase in hispanic population are...
Arkansas, Nevada, NC, Georgia, Nebraska
Only ___% of ASHA certified professionals are from racial/ethnic backgrounds
- refers to the phonological, suprasegmental, and vocal characteristics of a spoken language.
- Influences by regional and language differences.
- variations of a specific language.
- Includes not only surface structure variations but the deep structure
- NOT CONSIDERED DISORDED COMMUNICATION BUT DIFFERENCES
IE: North vs. South in Oklahoma has different speaking
- Gender based dialect
- gender sometimes determines the vocab you use.
- Ability to change in speaking situation.
- IE: talking to a princpal vs. talking to a friend
One example of standard american language is...
Who can refer someone to a SPL?
- teacher or other school personnel
- other professionals
First step to assessing a communication disorder:
- pre-diagnostic-obtaining case history (client, family disorder info)
- -Telephone interview
Second step to assessing a CD:
- Diagnostic test day
- -further interview client/family member
- -or ofacial exam
- -hearing screening
- -speech and language sample
- -formal testing specific to the area(s) which need investigation
third step to assessing a CD:
- Post diagnosis (what we did, why and the results)
- -interp conference- recommendations are made
- -written report disseminates
- An informed predicition of the outcome of a disorder
- IE:5 yr ols mom wants to know what will happen if disorder is left untreated and if therapy will help.
- Supply oxygen to the blood
- generating source for speech production
- also prevents foreign objects from entering the lungs
- 3 cavaties:
Overall primary purpose of PON is:
- Life support
- pathways for air, food; chewing and swallowing
coming to the midline
pulled away from the midline
come toward the midline
Inner unit of the respiratory subduvision is made up of what two parts?
- respiratory passages
- Trachea(windpipe)- Semerigid tube, its flexible
- Bronchi from lungs
- Bronchioles- opens into alveoli in lungs
Outer unit- chest wall
- Rib cage
Muscles of inhalation...
Found above the diaphram
Muscles of exhalation
Found below the diaphram in lower abdomen
Posterior (behind) to the respiratory system (or behind larynx)is the...
Esphogus (food tube)
Larynx (voicebox) is made up of: (CTACEH)
- Cricoid cartilage
- Thyriod Cartilage
- Arytenoid cartilage (pyramids)
- Cricoarytenoid joint
- Epigolottis (cartilage)
- Hyoid bone
True vocal folds
- 1cm long in female
- 1 1/2cm long in male
Opening between vocal folds, it is not a stucture but an opening
AKA false vocal folds
1st region of pharyngeal segment: Laryngopharynx
- AKA Hypopharanx
- Behind and above larynx
2nd region of pharyngeal segment: Oropharynx
Behind oral cavity
3rd region of pharyngeal segment: Nasopharynx
- behind nasal cavity
- made up of overlapping constricor muscles
3 boundaries of pharyngeal segment:
- Inferior: larynx and esophogus
- Anterior: Oral and nasal cavity
- Posterior: Spinal Column
Oral segment contain...
Hard palate, teeth, alveolar ridge, velum, lips, cheek, tongue, mandible
Nasal Segment contains...
(quiet inhalation aka tidal)
As thoracic volume____; Air pressure_____
What produces the energy source for speech?
Movement and pressure of air from lungs
Passive recoil forces:
What happens when your doing passive breathing
In speech breathing muscles do what to the rib cage?
- Pull downward so we can get extended speaking time
- It moves air out of lungs
In quiet breathing what the cycles per minute for males and females?
- 14-18 for males
- 16-20 for females (cause systems are smaller)
In speech breathing the typical adults produces____syllables per second
- OPEN, NOT VIBRATE- lets air pass thru
- used for all voiceless sounds
- vocal folds open and close rapidly to set up phonation
- used for all voice sounds
- *Adult male 90-180 cps
- *female 150-300cps (cause females have higher pitched voices)
- Vocal chords come together and open and close...but not close
Complete closure, buildup of subglottic air pressure then sudden release
- IE:Bottle...take out the tt
- IE:Mountain...take out the t
Larynx (voicebox) generates the______
Phonotory source (sound of our words)
The quality of the sound
The basic structure (unit) of the nervous system is the...
Neuron is made up of....
- Cell body
- Axon- carries info away
- Dendrites- carries info to
- Mylin Sheath
A nerve that carries info to the brain is also described as....
Afferent or sensory
A nerve that carries into away from the brain is also descirbed as...
Efferent or motor
- carry info from one neuron to another...
- its a gap
Central nervous system is made up of the...
Brain and spinal cord
The 3 major subdivisions of the brain are...
- Brain stem
4 major lobes of the brain
- Frontal - intellect, planning and motor for speech
- Temporal- Recieves and processes auditory and hearing sensation, memory
- Parietal- storage of info, recieves sensory impulses
- Occipital- Visual perception and recognition
Ridge of the cortex is the...
Shallow valley is the...
largest % of neurons originating from one side of the brain and control the other side of the body is...
Same side contral
Peripheral nervous system consists of 12 paris of....
and 31 pairs of....
- Cranial nerves
- Spinal nerves
There are _____cranial nerves that are important for speech and hearing
- Sensory to face
- Masication (chewing)
- Taste (gustation)
- Facial muscles
- (deals with hearing)
- Audition and equilubrium
- Minimal motor functions
- mainly sensory nerve
- taste, gag reflex
- Swallow stimulation, pharynx
- pharynx, larynx
- pharynx, larynx
- (equally sensory and motor functions)
- NO sensory functions
- head and shoulders
- Minimal sensory functions