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What are the microbial entry ways through the skin?
- sebaceous glands
- sweat glands
What are the different skin lesions and their sizes?
- Vesicle: fluid filled on epidermis < 1 cm
- Bulla: fluid filled on epidermis > 1 cm
- Macule: red imflammation < 1cm
- Pustule/papule: pus filled dermis< cm
What skin infections are Staphylococcal?
- Folliculitus/pimples eyelash is sty
- Fruncle/boil a more serious folliculitus
- Carbuncle: when infection is not walled off by the bodies immunal response
- Scalded skin syndrome
- pemphigus neonatorum/ baby impetigo
- toxic shock syndrome tss
What skin infections are Streptoccal?
- Erysipelas: redish patches
- Necrotizing fasciitis: flesh eating disease
- streptococcal TSS
What skin infections are caused by Pseudomonads?
- Pseudomonas dermatitis: self limiting rash swimming pools/hot tubs
- Otitus extrna
Name the virus diseases of the skin:
- Smallpox or Variola major/minor
- Varicella/chickenpox Shingles (herpes Zoster or complication Reye syndrome
- Human Herpesvirus/Herpes Simplex/HSV all -1 or -2
- Herpes Gladitorium = Herpes 1 caught wrestling
- Herpes whitlow = Herpes 1 from dentist
- Herpes encephalitis = compliction of herpes spreading to the brain
- Rubeola/Measles --> subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
- Rubella/German measles --> congenital rebella syndrome
- Erythema infectiosum/ Fifth Disease
- Roseola/HHV-6 and -7
Name the Fungal deseases of the skin and nails:
- Cutaneous Mycoses:
- Tinea capitis
- tinea cruris
- tinea pedis
- tinea unguium
- Subcutaneous mycoses:
What are the skin diseases caused by parasites:
Which bacteria is not a normal micro biota of the skin? Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Micrococci, or diphtheroids?
Staphylococci are gram negative true or false?
Staphylococcal can be grouped into two major catagories what are the catagories?
Those that produce coagulase and those that don't
Staphylococci are protected by what unique component that not all gram positive bacteria have?
The capsular material called a biofilm.
True or false, Staphylococcus epidermis are coagulase negative.
Name the most pathenogenic strain of Staphylococcus.
Why is S. aures so pathenogenic?
It is coagulase positive, the presence of coagulase is correlated with other damaging toxins including enterotoxins.
TSS is caused by what bacteria and what toxin?
Staphlococcus, TSST-1 a superantigen
folliculitus is caused by:
A sty is what and caused by what
Folliculitus of a hair follicle caused by Staphylococcus
A more serious type of infection of a hair follicle is ______ and caused by what?
Furuncle caused by Staphylococcus
A localized region of pus surrounded by inflammed tissue is ______ and becomes _______ if the infection is not being walled off and spreading.
The common causitive organism of impetigo is ____________
Staphylococcus aureus causes the symptoms: crusty sores on a child 2 to 5 years of age is called what?
Scalded skin syndrom is caused by ______ bacterium and is the later stages of________.
Staphylococcus aureus, TTS
Scalded skin syndrome is due to a Staphylococcal infection proximal or diastal to the original site of infection?
Streptococci are gram _______ and grow in a ________ shape.
Streptococcus pyogenes is catagorized in what important group and what does that group of bacteria do?
Group A Streptococci, which is Beta hemolytic, but can also lyse almost any other type of cell
S. pyogenes is responsible for causing what diseases:
- Pharyngitis/strep throat
- Ipetigo adult
- necrotizing fasciitus/ flesh eating disease
S. pyogenes virulence factors are:
- carbohydrate capsul of hyaluronic acid for mimicing host tissue
- Protein M, prevents activation of complement and evade phagocytosis by killing neutrophils, adhere to mucus membranes.
- Several enzymes: hyaluronidase, deoxyribonucleases, streptolysins
- Tinea capitus
- caused by fromites: trichophyton, microsporum, epidermophyton
cured by miconazole or clotrimazole
- tinea cruris
- caused by fromies: trichophyton, microsporum, epidermophyton
- cured by miconazole or clotrimazole
- tinea pedis
- caused by fromites: trychophyton, microsporum, epidermophyton
- cured by miconazole or clortrimazole
- tinea unguium/ onychomycosis
- caused by trichphyton or epidermophyton
- cured by oral itraconazole and terbinafine
people get this working in the soil causing ulcers on the hands
- caused by: sprorthrix schenkii
- Rx: dilute potassium iodide
Candida albicans causes what?
Yeast infection/ vaginitus/ thrush
- caused by pH off or loss of normal microbiota.
- Rx: miconazole, or clortrimazole
Itchy raised bumps
- caused by: parasite/mites, Sarcoptes scabiei
- intimate contact with infested person
- Rx: permethrin, or ivermectin
itchy and bug homes on hair or crotch
- cause: parasite pediculus humanus capitus (scalp) or pediculus humanus corporis
- Rx: permethrin, malathion, lindane
What is ophthalmia Neonatorum?
- cause: baby gets Neisseria gonorrhoeae from mother during childbirth
- Rx: triple anitbiotic ointment in eyes after born
Inclusion conjuntivitis is
- Chlamydial conjunctivitis
- cause chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular parasite
- canal childbirth or swimming pools (swimming pool conjunctivitis)
- Rx: tetracycline
The single greatest cause of bacterial blindness?
- cause: chlamydia trachomatis, spread by causal contact, touching infected stuff
- leads to trichiasis (inward eyelashes)
- Rx: antibiotics( oral azithromycin)
an infected cornea that leads to deep ulcers and blindness?
- Herpetic Keratitis
- cause: Humanherpes type I
- Rx: trifluridine
disease caused by wearing contacts overnight or using homemade saline from bad water or dirt? Starts as mild iflammation of the eye
- Acanthamoeba keratitis
- cause: amoeba
- diagnosis: trophozoites and cysts in stained scrapings of the cornea
- Rx: propamidine isethionate eyedrops
Meningitis often in children under the age of 4
- Haemophilus influenzae meningitis/
- cause same as disease
- gram (-) bacteria with carbohdrate casule with some having capsular anigen b (HIB)
- Rx: prophilactic vaccination
Menigitus in children under 2, with a rash that doesn't fade when pressed. Found in college student dorms
- Neisseria Meningitis (meningococcal Meningitis)
- Cause: Neisseria meningitidis -an aerobic gram (-) endotoxin producing bastard
- Mortality: 80% untreated, 9-12% but with residual damage
- Rx: prophylactic vaccination
Antibiotic resistant strains of this meningitis are becoming more frequent, found in children and elderly. HIB
- Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis
- cause: Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Rx prophylactic Vaccination
How to diagnose most meningitis?
spinal tap, lumbar puncture and gram stain. Broad antibiotics as cephlosporins
Fecal born disease that makes it into the food (meat). Causing meningitis in immune compromised adults, more typically though no symptoms. In pregnant the disease causes much harm to the baby.
- cause: Listeria monocytogenes
- Rx: penecillinG
The oblegate anaerobic commonly found in fecal contaminated dirt and known as lockjaw.
- cause: Clostridium tetani, gram (+)
- toxin: tetanospasmin attaches to the nerves and causes opisthotonos.
- Rx: Prophylactic vaccination. Debridement and tetanus immune globulin for possible threats
What disease causes flaccid paralysis?
- cause: Clostridium botulinum - abligately anaerobic, endospore, gram (+), exotoxin
- Toxin: type A most virulent 70% mort, B 25% mort., E
- Rx: Supportive care for a long time
The nervous system attacking disease that favors slightly cooler than body temps.
- Leprosy/Hansen's Disease
- cause: Mycobacterium leprae, an acid-fast rod, invader of the myelin sheath.
- Tuberculoid neural form affects skin numb
- Progressive form causes severe distal tissue damage.
- Rx: Vaccine, Dapsone, fifamin, clofazimine
Which viral disease attacks motor neural cells?
- Cause: poliovirus, fecal oral route
- Rx: vaccination
Viral disease that almost always ends in fatal encephalitis
- pathogen: rabiesvirus, bullet shaped lysavirus. starts in skeletal muscle/connective tissue and moves on to PNS to CNS.
- Furious rabies =biting
- paralytic rabies = but still might snap
- Prophylactic Vaccination
- post infection vaccine and Immune globin.
- Rx: once symptoms appear little chance of effective treatment, and residual neural damage likely
Mosquitoe born viral diseases
- Arboviral Encephalitis
- named by place: California, St. Louis or animal and place.
The name of a fungal disease of the nervous system that is well adapted to the CNS fluid.
- Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis/ Cryptococcosis
- caused by cryptococcus in bird feces.
- usually contracted by people with compromised immune responses.
- C. gattii mortality rate of 30%
Name of the African protozoan disease related to the Tse-tse fly.
- African trypanosomiasis/sleeping sickness
- Cause: Trypanosoma brucei gambeniense/rhodesinse. which are flagellates. West african trypanosomiasis. Chronic fever, headaches which indicates the deterioration of the CNS, Death & Coma.
- Especially virulent due to constant mutating capability as antigens are produced by host
- Rx: eflornithine crosses blood brain barrier
The most dangerous water born protozoa resulting in 100% mortality rate
- Amebic Meningogencephalitis / PAM/ primary amebic meningoencephalitis
- cause Naegleria fowleri
- Usually childeren and initially infect mucus membranes and feeds on brains.
- Rx: rarely is diagnosis made in time for treatment, but Antifungal drug amphotericin B
inflammed lymph vessels caused by sepsis is ?
Sepsis: a systemic inflammatory response syndrom (SIRS) caused by a focus of infection that releases mediators of inflammation into the bloodstream.
Symptoms: red streaks on limbs, accelerated breathing/heart rate, failure of at least one organ, and drop in blood pressure. What is it?
septic shock is different than severe sepsis, how?
low blood pressure can no longer be controlled by addition of fluids.
Septic shock is most likely to be caused by what type of bacteria? Alternate names?
- Gram (-)
- Gram (-) septic shock, endotoxic shock
- Rx: attempt to neutralize the effects of the toxin, recucing inflammation causing cytokines Xigris
Gram (+) bacteria causing sepsis
gram positive sepsis is caused by staphylococcus and streptococcus, enterococci
semmelweis showed that washing hands would greatly reduce this type of sepsis.
- Puerperal Sepsis/ puerperal fever/childbirth fever
- cause: noscomial infection of uterus by streptococcus pyogenes.
- Rx: penecillin, modern hygienic practices
a slow developing infection/inflammation of endocardium
- Subacute bacterial endocarditis
- cause: alpha-hemolytic streptococci
- dental proceedures and peircing releases the streptococci into the blood system
Progressive type of bacterial endocarditis:
- acute bacterial endocarditis:
- pathogen: Staphylococcus aureus
- can also cause pericarditis
Streptococcal infection that involves capular m protein causing heart inflammation.
- Rheumatic Fever
- pathogen: streptococcal pyogenes
- immune complications in school-aged children
- Rx: penicillin G benzathine
Zoonotic disese that causes lymph nodes to enlarge due to pockets of pus.
- Tularemia/rabbit fever/deer fly fever
- Pathogen: Francisella tularensis
- transmission: rabbits and squirrels, also dust of urine and insects
- Mortality 30%
Gram (-) coccoid rods that cause a persistant fever which increases during the evening hours
- Brucellosis(undulant fever)
- Pathogen: Brucella melitensis
- found in unpasturized foods
- Rx: six weeks on at least two different types of antibiotics
Bactrium that naturally is found in dirt and is endosporin forming, and can cause fatal sepsis.
- Pathogen: Bacillus anthracis, gram (+)
- toxin: endotoxins -edema toxin (interferes with macrophages) and lethal toxin (kills macrophages)
- Capsular composed of amino acid residues which allows it to reproduce uninhibited in the blood stream.
- three types:
- cutaneous (most common 20% morality untreated 1% treated with antibiotics), gastrointestinal mortality 50% causes ulcers and bloody diarrhea, pulmonary mortality 100% (mild fever, chest pain, coughing)
- Rx: Vaccination, early administration of antibiotics
Necrotic flesh resulting from the loss of blood supply is called?
Anaerobic microbes that are endosporin forming and gram (+) and can live off nutrients found in necrotic tissue.
- Gangrene loving: Clostridium perfringens
- produces endotoxins that kill more tissue. and produces gases (CO2 and H2).
- Rx: amputation of diseased flesh, hyperbaric chamber to increase oxygen and kill the anaerobic pathogen. Penicillin.
Produces the slapped cheek syndrome due to a viral pathogen that was air born
Fifth disese/ erythema infectiosum
Name 5 Diseases that have Macular rashes
- Measles -Measles virus
- Rubella/German measles- Rubella virus
- Fifth disease/Erythema infection -Human parvovirus B19
- Candidiasis -Candida albicans
Symptoms: severe muscle/joint pain, fever, and rash. Caused by a viral infection which is spread by the Aedes vector.
- Dengue/Breakbone fever
- Classic Dengue is virulent?
Meningoencephalitis is due to this amoeba.
Naegleria Fowleri/The Brain eating amoeba.
What type of drugs can pass the blood-brain barrier?
You've got a fever, stiff neck, and headache after spending three days of binge drinking and moshing in the pit of lalapallooza. Later that day you feel nausea and begin vomiting. What may have contracted?