- Infiltration - when fluid enters subcutaneous tissue
- Can occur if needle or catheter slips our of vein or if IV fluid leaks from vein. Client may complain of pain and selling around infusion site which may be cool to touch. Absence of blood return may indicate but not definitive since some catheters designed to prevent backflow.
- inflammation of a vein; if accompanied by clot, referred to as thrombophlebitis. Client may complain of discomfort and vein appears red and feels warm and cordlike/hard.
- local or systemic symptoms. Longer an IV is in one site, greater risk of infection
- may occur if client receives fluid too rapidly. Very young or elderly and clients with renal or cardiac impairment vulnerable. S/S: restlessness, headache, increased in pulserate, weight gain over a short period of time,cough, presence of edema, hypertension, wide variance between intake and output, distended neck veins, SOB
- Air entering the central vein, which is quicklytrapped in the blood as it flows forward. S/S: complaints of palpitations, lightheadednessand weakness, pulmonary findings: dyspnea,cyanosis, tachypnea, expiratory, wheezes,cough, and pulmonary edema. Cardiovascular:“mill wheel” murmur; weak, thready pulse;tachycardia; substernal chest pain; hypotension;and jugular venous distention. Neurologic findings: change in mental status, confusion,coma, anxiousness, and seizures. At first sign, place client on left, Trendenlenburg position.
- Occurs when a foreign substance usually amedication is rapidly introduced into the circulation. S/S: dizziness, facial flushing, headache,tightness in the chest, hypotension, irregularpulse, progression of shock.