Texes 8-12 life science

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lacyk415
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Texes 8-12 life science
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2011-02-15 19:35:45
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Texes 8-12 life science content test
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  1. MONOMERS
    • simplest unit of structure
    • combine to form polymers through condensation
    • break apart through hydrolysis
  2. CARBOHYDRATES
    • -´╗┐contain a ratio of 2 hydrogen atoms for each carbon and oxygen
    • -include sugars and starches
    • -function in the release of energy
  3. MONOSACCHARIDES
    • simplest sugars
    • include glucose, fructose, and galactose
    • major nutrients for cells
  4. DISACCHARIDES
    • made by joining 2 monosaccharides through condensation to form a glycosidic linkage
    • maltose - 2 glucoses
    • lactose - glucose + galactose
    • sucrose - glucose + sucrose
  5. POLYSACCHARIDES
    • consist of many monomers joined together
    • storage materials hydrolized to as needed to provide sugar for cells or building materials for structures protecting the cell
    • examples: starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
  6. STARCH
    • major energy storage molecule in plants
    • made up of many glucose molecules
  7. GLYCOGEN
    • major energy storage molecules in animals
    • made of many glucose molecules
  8. CELLULOSE
    • found in plant cell walls, function is structure
    • adds fiber to diet because many animals lack the enzymes necessary to hydrolyze cellulose
  9. CHITIN
    • found in the exoskeleton of arthropods and fungi
    • contains an amino sugar
  10. LIPIDS
    • composed of glycerol (alcohol) and three fatty acids
    • examples: fats, phospholipids, steroids
  11. FATS
    • long carbon skeletons
    • solids at room temperature and come from animals
    • examples: lard, butter
  12. PHOSPHOLIPIDS
    • vital component in cell membranes
    • one or two fatty acids are replaced by phosphate group linked to a nitrogen group
    • polar hydrophillic head, hydrophobic tail
  13. STEROIDS
    • insoluble and composed of a carbon skeleton consisting of four interconnected rings
    • cholesterol is the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized
    • hormones are steroids and do not dissolve in the body
  14. PROTEINS
    • function in:
    • structure and support - connective tissue, hair feathers, quills
    • storage of amino acids-albumin in eggs
    • transport of substances- hemoglobin
    • coordination body activities - insulin
    • signal transduction - membrane receptor proteins
    • contraction - muscles
    • body defense - antibodies
    • function as enzymes to speed up chemical reactions
  15. ENZYMES
    • act as biological catalysts to speed up reactions.
    • most diverse of all types of proteins
    • act on a substrate ( the material to be broken down or put back together)
  16. LOCK AND KEY THEORY
    • the shape of the enzyme is specific because it fits into the subsrtate like a key fits into a lock.
    • Aids in holding molecules close together so reactions can easily occur
  17. INDUCED FIT THEORY
    • an enzyme can stretch and bed to fit the substrate
    • most accepted theory
  18. COMPETITIVE INHIBITORS
    block the substrate from entering the active site of the enzyme reduce productivity
  19. NONCOMPETITIVE INHIBITORS
    • bind to the enzyme in a location not in the active site but still interrupt substrate binding
    • in most cases alter the shape of the enzyme
  20. ALLOSTERIC ENZYME
    can exist in two shapes, they are active in one form and inactive in the other
  21. ARCHEA
    • methanogens
    • halobacteria
    • thermacidophiles
  22. PLASTIDS
    • found only in photosynthetic organisms
    • similar to mitochondria
    • chloroplasts - site of photosynthesis
    • chromoplasts - make and store yellow and orange pigments
    • amyloplasts - store starch and are used as a food reserve
  23. ENDOSYMBIONIC THEORY
    mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free living and possibly evolved from prokaryotic cells. At some point they were ingested into eukaryotic cells and maintained a symbiotic relationship with them. Have their own DNA, RNA, ribosomes, and are capable of reproduction
  24. CYTOSKELETON
    • found in both animal and plant cells
    • composed of protein filaments attached to the plasma membrane and organelles
    • framework for the cell and aids in cell movement
    • 3 types: microtubles, intermediate filaments, microfilaments
  25. LYTIC CYCLE
    virus enters a host cell and makes copies of its nucleic acids and protein coats and reassembles. It then lyses or breaks out of the hoset cell and infects other nearby cells, repeating the process
  26. LYSOGENIC CYCLE
    virus may remain dormant within the cell until some factor activates itr and stimulates it to break out of the cell, then enters the lytic cycle
  27. PROTISTS
    single celled organism
  28. PROTOZOANS
    • animal like protists
    • do not have chloroplasts
    • classified by the way they move:
    • amoebas - pseudopods
    • paramecium - cillia
    • euglena - flagellum
  29. PASSIVE TRANSPORT
    • does not require energy and moves the material fwith the concentration gradient (high to low)
    • osmosis and diffusion
    • only for small molecules
  30. DIFFUSION
    ability of molecules to move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. Normally involves small uncharged particles like oxygen
  31. OSMOSIS
    • the diffusion of water across a semi0permeable membrane
    • causes celss to swell or shrink
  32. FACILITATED DIFFUSION
    • does not require energy, but does require a carrier protein
    • example: insulin-needed to carry glucose into the cell

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