Bio: Physiology (I, II, III)

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yankeeninja217
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Bio: Physiology (I, II, III)
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2011-02-16 22:05:46
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Bio biology physiology physiology physiology II physiology III
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Physiology Test (2/18)
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  1. Function of RBC
    carry O2 (hemoglobin)
  2. Function Of WBC
    protect body from infection
  3. Function of Platelets
    • Clot blood;
    • Stop bleeding
  4. Function of Plasma
    transports materials in bloood since it is the liquid part of blood
  5. What is excreted via Lungs?
    (Respiratory)
    • CO2
    • H20
  6. What are the components of blood?
    • RBC
    • WBC
    • Platelets
    • Plasma
  7. What is the purpose of excretion?
    • to remove unnecessary products
    • and maintain homeostasis
  8. Function of villi in SI
    to increase surface area
  9. A. Function of Bile
    B. Where is it produced
    • A. Breaks down fats (lipids)
    • B. Liver
  10. What is broken down in the stomach?
    What enzyme(s) is/are used?
    • Proteins
    • Pepsin
  11. What is broken down in the mouth?
    By what enzyme(s)?
    • Starch --> Glucose
    • Amylase
  12. Mechanical Digestion... Explain.
    Where does it take place?
    • It physically breaks down food
    • in the mouth, stomach
  13. Organs involved in digestion
    • Mouth >
    • Salivary Glands >
    • Esophagus >
    • Stomach >
    • Liver >
    • Gall Bladder >
    • Pancreas >
    • Small Intestine>
    • Large INtestine >
    • Rectum
  14. The purpose of digestion is ___________
    to break down food and nutrients into smaller, usable subsatnces
  15. The role of Liver in Excretion is to _______
    The liver secretes bile, a base used for breaking down fats. Therefore, it helps get rid of unneeded wastes in the body
  16. What does urine consist of?
    • Salts
    • Urea
    • H2O
  17. 5 Wastes produced by the excretory system are _________
    • Urine
    • Sweat
    • CO2
    • H20
    • ????
  18. Four organs in Excretory System:
    • Lungs
    • Skin
    • Kidney
    • Urethra????
  19. Enzymes for the SI are produced in the ___(1)___ & ___(2)___
    • Liver
    • -- bile, disacharidases, dipeptidases
    • Pancreas
    • -- amylase, trypsin, lipase
  20. Small Intestine:
    nutrient (broken down by enzyme)
    • fats (bile & lipase)
    • starches (amylase & disacharidases)proteins (trypsin & dipeptidases)
  21. Structure of a nephron
    • Glomerulus
    • Bowman's Capsule
    • Renal Cortex
    • Renal Medulla
    • Loop of Henle
    • Collecting tubule
    • Vein
    • Artery
    • filtrate
    • capillaries
  22. Function of a nephron
    • Filtration
    • Reabsorption
  23. What nutrients do "we" need to survive?
    • Fats
    • Proteins
    • Water
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Carbs
  24. name the Blood Vessels
    • Arteries
    • Veins
    • Capillaries
    • Arterioles
    • Venuoles
  25. Label:
    • 1. Aorta
    • 2. Superior Vena Cava
    • 3. Pulmonary Artery
    • 4. Pulmonary Veins
    • 5. Right Atrium
    • 6. Tricuspid Valve
    • 7. Right Ventricle
    • 8. Inferior Vena Cava
    • 9. Pilmonary Artery
    • 10. Pulmonary Veins
    • 11. Left Atrium
    • 12. Bicuspid/mitral Valve
    • 13. Semi Lunar Valve
    • 14. Left Ventricle
    • 15. Aorta
  26. Flow of Blood through Heart

    Right Atrium -->
    • RA
    • Tricuspid
    • RV
    • Semilunar
    • PA
    • Lungs
    • PV
    • LA
    • Mitral/Bicuspid
    • LV
    • Semilunar
    • Aorta
    • Body
    • Vena Cavas
    • RA
    • (start over)
  27. Oxygen Rich vs Oxygen Poor
    • Rich: Left
    • Poor Right
    • (side of Heart)
  28. Difference between:
    Pulmonary
    Coronary
    Systemic
    • Pulm: Lungs
    • Coronary: Heart
    • Systemic: Body
  29. Define Disease
    any change, other than an injury, that disrupts homeostasis
  30. Infectious Disease
    Diseases caused by pathogens and can be spread from person to person

    • INfectious disease: Virus
    • NON-infectious disease: Cancer
  31. Infectious Disease caused by:
    • Inheritance (hemophilia, sickle cell anemia)
    • Environmental Factors (second hand smoke)
    • Pathogens (Viruses, Fungi, protists, worms, bacteria)
  32. What is a Pathogen?
    • "sickness makers"
    • agents that enter the body and disrupt homeostasis
  33. What are the three lines of defense? Explain.
    • 1st line: Nonspecific - "fortress walls"
    • skin, tears, sweat, saliva, mucus, stomach acid, etc
    • 2nd line: If pathogen passes 1st line --> infection; Non-specific
    • Inflammatory response: increased blood flow (area becomes red and swelled)
    • 3rd line: Specific -- "Security Guard"
    • recognizes, attacks, destroys, remembers
  34. What are Koch's Postulates?
    • Steps to determining a disease:
    • - Pathogen should be found in the body of sick organism
    • - Pathogen must be isolated and grown
    • - When Pathogen is put into a new host, same disease is caused
    • - pathogen from new host should be re-isolated and identical to original
  35. What are ANTIGENS?
    • Antigen:
    • ANTI - GEN
    • ANTIbody GENorator

    • Molecules/Markers on pathigens that triggers an immune response
    • Generate Anitibodies
  36. Types of Immunity:
    Passive & Active

    • Passive
    • temporary
    • "borrowed immunity"
    • maternal immunity (antibodies come to baby from mother before birth and from mother's breast milk)

    • Active:
    • body produces its own antibodies/Killer T Cells to attack an antigen
    • results from having the disease or getting the vaccination
  37. AIDS
    • HIV attacks helper T-Cells and multiplies
    • HIV causes AIDS
    • A positive HIV result doesn't necessarily means you have AIDS, but if you have AIDS, you are HIV+
    • You don't die from AIDS, you die because something slipped past your immune system and is too weak to fight back
    • HIV/AIDS is spread by unprotected sex and drug use
    • less than 200 T cells determines if you have AIDS
  38. Allergies
    • Rapid immmune system reaction to environmental substances that are normally harmless
    • reacts by releasing antihystamines
    • leads to runny nose, swelling, rash, sneezing
  39. Who are Salk, Sabin, and Enders??? :P
    • Salk used a killed virus to find a vaccine for polio; marinated it in formalin
    • Sabin used a live virus to find a polio vaccine
    • Enders found out how to grow polio in test tubes
  40. Inhaling and Exhaling:
    relationship between volume and pressure
    • Inhaling: volume ^, pressure V
    • Exhaling: volume V, pressure ^
    • (INDIRECT RELATIONSHIP)
  41. Parts of the respiratory system:
    • mouth
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • epiglottis
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • lungs
    • bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • alveoli
    • diaphragm
  42. Gas exchange occurs in the ____?_____
    ? = Alveoli
  43. CO2 is transported via _1__, __2_, & __3_
    • 1. carbonic acid (70%)
    • 2. hemoglobin (20%)
    • 3. plasma (10%)

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