Bio: Physiology (I, II, III)
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Bio: Physiology (I, II, III)
Bio biology physiology physiology physiology II physiology III
Physiology Test (2/18)
Function of RBC
Function Of WBC
protect body from infection
Function of Platelets
Function of Plasma
transports materials in bloood since it is the liquid part of blood
What is excreted via Lungs?
What are the components of blood?
What is the purpose of excretion?
to remove unnecessary products
and maintain homeostasis
Function of villi in SI
to increase surface area
A. Function of Bile
B. Where is it produced
A. Breaks down fats (lipids)
What is broken down in the stomach?
What enzyme(s) is/are used?
What is broken down in the mouth?
By what enzyme(s)?
Starch --> Glucose
Mechanical Digestion... Explain.
Where does it take place?
It physically breaks down food
in the mouth, stomach
Organs involved in digestion
Salivary Glands >
Gall Bladder >
Large INtestine >
The purpose of digestion is ___________
to break down food and nutrients into smaller, usable subsatnces
The role of Liver in Excretion is to _______
The liver secretes bile, a base used for breaking down fats. Therefore, it helps get rid of unneeded wastes in the body
5 Wastes produced by the excretory system are _________
Four organs in Excretory System:
Enzymes for the SI are produced in the
-- bile, disacharidases, dipeptidases
-- amylase, trypsin, lipase
nutrient (broken down by enzyme)
fats (bile & lipase)
starches (amylase & disacharidases)proteins (trypsin & dipeptidases)
Structure of a nephron
Loop of Henle
Function of a nephron
What nutrients do
need to survive?
name the Blood Vessels
2. Superior Vena Cava
3. Pulmonary Artery
4. Pulmonary Veins
5. Right Atrium
6. Tricuspid Valve
7. Right Ventricle
8. Inferior Vena Cava
9. Pilmonary Artery
10. Pulmonary Veins
11. Left Atrium
12. Bicuspid/mitral Valve
13. Semi Lunar Valve
14. Left Ventricle
Flow of Blood through Heart
Right Atrium -->
Oxygen Rich vs Oxygen Poor
(side of Heart)
any change, other than an injury, that disrupts homeostasis
Diseases caused by pathogens and can be spread from person to person
Infectious Disease caused by:
Inheritance (hemophilia, sickle cell anemia)
Environmental Factors (second hand smoke)
Pathogens (Viruses, Fungi, protists, worms, bacteria)
What is a Pathogen?
agents that enter the body and disrupt homeostasis
What are the three lines of defense? Explain.
: Nonspecific - "fortress walls"
skin, tears, sweat, saliva, mucus, stomach acid, etc
: If pathogen passes 1st line --> infection; Non-specific
: increased blood flow (area becomes red and swelled)
: Specific -- "Security Guard"
recognizes, attacks, destroys, remembers
What are Koch's Postulates?
Steps to determining a disease:
- Pathogen should be found in the body of sick organism
- Pathogen must be isolated and grown
- When Pathogen is put into a new host, same disease is caused
- pathogen from new host should be re-isolated and identical to original
What are ANTIGENS?
Molecules/Markers on pathigens that triggers an immune response
Types of Immunity:
Passive & Active
maternal immunity (antibodies come to baby from mother before birth and from mother's breast milk)
body produces its own antibodies/Killer T Cells to attack an antigen
results from having the disease or getting the vaccination
HIV attacks helper T-Cells and multiplies
HIV causes AIDS
A positive HIV result doesn't necessarily means you have AIDS, but if you have AIDS, you are HIV+
You don't die from AIDS, you die because something slipped past your immune system and is too weak to fight back
HIV/AIDS is spread by unprotected sex and drug use
less than 200 T cells determines if you have AIDS
Rapid immmune system reaction to environmental substances that are normally harmless
reacts by releasing antihystamines
leads to runny nose, swelling, rash, sneezing
Who are Salk, Sabin, and Enders??? :P
Salk used a killed virus to find a vaccine for polio; marinated it in formalin
Sabin used a live virus to find a polio vaccine
Enders found out how to grow polio in test tubes
Inhaling and Exhaling:
relationship between volume and pressure
: volume ^, pressure
, pressure ^
Parts of the respiratory system:
Gas exchange occurs in the ____
? = Alveoli
is transported via _1__, __2_, & __3_
1. carbonic acid (70%)
2. hemoglobin (20%)
3. plasma (10%)