Bio: Physiology (I, II, III)
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Function of RBC
carry O2 (hemoglobin)
Function Of WBC
protect body from infection
Function of Plasma
transports materials in bloood since it is the liquid part of blood
What is excreted via Lungs?
What are the components of blood?
What is the purpose of excretion?
- to remove unnecessary products
- and maintain homeostasis
Function of villi in SI
to increase surface area
A. Function of Bile
B. Where is it produced
- A. Breaks down fats (lipids)
- B. Liver
What is broken down in the stomach?
What enzyme(s) is/are used?
What is broken down in the mouth?
By what enzyme(s)?
- Starch --> Glucose
Mechanical Digestion... Explain.
Where does it take place?
- It physically breaks down food
- in the mouth, stomach
Organs involved in digestion
- Mouth >
- Salivary Glands >
- Esophagus >
- Stomach >
- Liver >
- Gall Bladder >
- Pancreas >
- Small Intestine>
- Large INtestine >
The purpose of digestion is ___________
to break down food and nutrients into smaller, usable subsatnces
The role of Liver in Excretion is to _______
The liver secretes bile, a base used for breaking down fats. Therefore, it helps get rid of unneeded wastes in the body
What does urine consist of?
5 Wastes produced by the excretory system are _________
Four organs in Excretory System:
Enzymes for the SI are produced in the ___(1)___ & ___(2)___
- -- bile, disacharidases, dipeptidases
- -- amylase, trypsin, lipase
nutrient (broken down by enzyme)
- fats (bile & lipase)
- starches (amylase & disacharidases)proteins (trypsin & dipeptidases)
Structure of a nephron
- Bowman's Capsule
- Renal Cortex
- Renal Medulla
- Loop of Henle
- Collecting tubule
What nutrients do "we" need to survive?
name the Blood Vessels
- 1. Aorta
- 2. Superior Vena Cava
- 3. Pulmonary Artery
- 4. Pulmonary Veins
- 5. Right Atrium
- 6. Tricuspid Valve
- 7. Right Ventricle
- 8. Inferior Vena Cava
- 9. Pilmonary Artery
- 10. Pulmonary Veins
- 11. Left Atrium
- 12. Bicuspid/mitral Valve
- 13. Semi Lunar Valve
- 14. Left Ventricle
- 15. Aorta
Flow of Blood through Heart
Right Atrium -->
- Vena Cavas
- (start over)
Oxygen Rich vs Oxygen Poor
- Rich: Left
- Poor Right
- (side of Heart)
- Pulm: Lungs
- Coronary: Heart
- Systemic: Body
any change, other than an injury, that disrupts homeostasis
Diseases caused by pathogens and can be spread from person to person
- INfectious disease: Virus
- NON-infectious disease: Cancer
Infectious Disease caused by:
- Inheritance (hemophilia, sickle cell anemia)
- Environmental Factors (second hand smoke)
- Pathogens (Viruses, Fungi, protists, worms, bacteria)
What is a Pathogen?
- "sickness makers"
- agents that enter the body and disrupt homeostasis
What are the three lines of defense? Explain.
- 1st line: Nonspecific - "fortress walls"
- skin, tears, sweat, saliva, mucus, stomach acid, etc
- 2nd line: If pathogen passes 1st line --> infection; Non-specific
- Inflammatory response: increased blood flow (area becomes red and swelled)
- 3rd line: Specific -- "Security Guard"
- recognizes, attacks, destroys, remembers
What are Koch's Postulates?
- Steps to determining a disease:
- - Pathogen should be found in the body of sick organism
- - Pathogen must be isolated and grown
- - When Pathogen is put into a new host, same disease is caused
- - pathogen from new host should be re-isolated and identical to original
What are ANTIGENS?
- ANTI - GEN
- ANTIbody GENorator
- Molecules/Markers on pathigens that triggers an immune response
- Generate Anitibodies
Types of Immunity:
Passive & Active
- "borrowed immunity"maternal immunity (antibodies come to baby from mother before birth and from mother's breast milk)
- body produces its own antibodies/Killer T Cells to attack an antigen
- results from having the disease or getting the vaccination
- HIV attacks helper T-Cells and multiplies
- HIV causes AIDS
- A positive HIV result doesn't necessarily means you have AIDS, but if you have AIDS, you are HIV+
- You don't die from AIDS, you die because something slipped past your immune system and is too weak to fight back
- HIV/AIDS is spread by unprotected sex and drug use
- less than 200 T cells determines if you have AIDS
- Rapid immmune system reaction to environmental substances that are normally harmless
- reacts by releasing antihystamines
- leads to runny nose, swelling, rash, sneezing
Who are Salk, Sabin, and Enders??? :P
- Salk used a killed virus to find a vaccine for polio; marinated it in formalin
- Sabin used a live virus to find a polio vaccine
- Enders found out how to grow polio in test tubes
Inhaling and Exhaling:
relationship between volume and pressure
- Inhaling: volume ^, pressure V
- Exhaling: volume V, pressure ^
- (INDIRECT RELATIONSHIP)
Parts of the respiratory system:
Gas exchange occurs in the ____?_____
? = Alveoli
CO2 is transported via _1__, __2_, & __3_
- 1. carbonic acid (70%)
- 2. hemoglobin (20%)
- 3. plasma (10%)
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