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molecules move from the less concentrated area to the more concentrated area
movement of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an
area of lower concentration
(ATP) is used to move sodium
molecules and potassium molecules across a semipermeable membrane
to 1500 ml /day
normal urine output
normal fluid intake
of body fluids and electrolyte imbalance, selective
water vapor lost in lungs ,Feces
stops you from peeing so much,
release and response effect for the need to retain more water.
most abundant cation in ECF, control and regulation of water
vital electrolyte for skeletal, cardiac, and
smooth muscle activity, must be ingested daily.
-99% in the skeletal
system. Vital in regulating muscle contraction, relaxation, neuromuscular
function, and cardiac function.
involved in regulating neuromuscular and
major component in gastric juice as
essential for functioning of muscles, nerves,
red blood cells
our “quick regulators
•Regulate acid-base balance by eliminating or
retaining carbon dioxide
–Faster rate/more depth = get rid of more CO2 and pH rises
Slower rate/less depth = retain CO2 and pH lowers-applies to someone with respiratory difficulties, COPD
•Regulate by selectively excreting or conserving bicarbonate and
•Slower to respond to change
factors affecting electrolyte, acid base balance
age, gender, temp., lifestyle
excessive perspiration, diahrrea, not taking enough fluid– fluid volume deficit diagnosis
Isotonic loss of water and electrolytes
sodium and water are retained in similar
proportions, WATER FOLLOWS SALT.
- Isotonic gain of water and electrolytes
- (fluid volume excess