the study of drugs and their actions with living systems
the most important property a drug can have
the ability of a drug to elicit only the response for which it is given
the study of drugs in humans
the use of drugs to diagnose, prevent or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy
a ____ drug is defined as one that cannot produce harmful effects--even if administered in very high doses and for a very long time
there is no such thing as a safe drug. all drugs have the ability to cause injury, esp with high doses and prolonged use.
some drugs lose effectiveness during storage. others may be stable on the shelf can rapidly lose effectiveness when put into solution (eg, in preparation for infusion). these losses in efficacy result from ________________.
an ideal drug would retain its activity indefinantly- chemical stability
the impact of the body on drugs
its four processes are:
1. drug absorption
2. drug distribution
3. drug excretion
4. drug excretion
the impact of drugs on the body
once a drug has reached its sites of action, pharmacodynamic processes determain the nature and intensity of the response.
additional properties that a drug should "ideally" demonstrate are:
Ease of administration
Freedom from drug interactions
Possession of a simple Generic name
Because no drug is ideal...
Because medications are not ideal, all members of the healthcare team must exercise care to promote therapeutic effects and minimize drug-induced harm
The objective of drug therapy is to provide maximum benefit with minimum harm
multiple factors determine how an individual will respond to a prescribed dose of a particular drug:
pharmacokinetics (how drugs circulate)
pharmacodynamics (how drugs act)
physiologic variables (age, gender, weight)
pathologic variables (esp diminished function of the kidneys and liver, the major organs of drug elimination)