bio 242 test 2

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taylorbialkowski
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66647
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bio 242 test 2
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2011-02-15 23:24:54
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bio 242 test 2
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  1. actin and myosin
    helps heal wounds
    do not need fibrin mesh anymore
    platelets
  2. to break apart fibrin
    plasmin breaks up fibrin mesh
    *cut is now healed
    fibrinolysis
  3. form clots when there is no injury
    thromboembolitic disorders
  4. cannot form clots at all, males only
    hemophelia
  5. anemia > hematocrite
    glucose > diabetes
    lipids > cholesterol
    leukocytes > WBC's
    different types of blood tests
  6. the heart is a ________ pump
    double
  7. location of heart
    mediastinum
  8. 2 layers, outermost (lining of heart)
    • fibrous layer
    • fluid
    • serous layer
  9. cardiac muscle, controlled by nervous system, contraction/signaling (sympathetic nervous system) (lining of heart)
    myocardium
  10. innermost layer of heart
    endocardium
  11. right coronary
    right marginal
    posterior interventricular
    left coronary > circumflex, anterior interventricular
    arteries
  12. small
    middle
    great
    -all go to coronary sinus
    -coronary sinus then returns blood to right atrium
    cardiac veins
  13. superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus brings blood to ________
    atrium
  14. temporary lack of oxygen, heart will hurt
    angina pectoris
  15. heart attack
    carinary
    myocardial infarction
  16. vasospasm
    sympathetic (autonomic)
  17. when ventricle contracts, AV valve closed
    systole
  18. when ventricle relaxes, AV valve opened, filling with blood
    diastole
  19. differences in prssure on each side determines when AV valve is ________/________
    open/closed
  20. ________ ________/papillary muscle controls opening and closing of valve
    chordae tendinae
  21. sound heart makes when AV valve is closing
    lub
  22. sound heart makes when AV valve is opening
    dup
  23. any other sound the heart makes (besides lub-dup-pause) is a ________
    murmur
  24. when valve cannot open all the way
    stenosis
  25. when valve cannot close all the way
    incompetant
  26. second major control system
    hormones > chemical messages
    acts very slow
    endocrine system
  27. permeability and membrane potential can be changed by ________ or synthesize of protein or increases cytosis
    hormones
  28. -one hormone cannot be effective without another
    ex) reproductive hormones cannot be efficient without thyroid hormones > puberty
    permissiveness
  29. one and one will equal more than two
    ex) glucagen will increase blood glucose levels
    epinephrine ^
    ^-50, ^-50, = 150
    synergism
  30. opposite of synergism, glucagen increases/insulin decreases
    antagonism
  31. humoral stimuli > ion or nutrients
    *neural stimuli > epinephrine
    hormonal stimuli > tells other hormones to start doing their job
    hormone release
  32. turning on another system > trophic, tropic
    1. growth hormone > bones and ligaments will grow
    2. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) released
    3. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    4. Gonadotropic
    pituitary gland
  33. leutenizing hormone
    egg
  34. follicle stimulating hormone
    follicle wrapping
  35. secondary sexual characteristics
    >boobies, wider hips, hair, menstrual cycle, menarche
    estrogen
  36. inner linger of uterus for baby, cranky moods
    progesterone
  37. testes
    1. sperm
    2. testosterone > secondary characteristics of males (androgens)
    -deep voice
    -bigger/stronger muscles
    -hair everywhere
    anterior pituitary gland
  38. produces milk for women
    prolactin
  39. oxytocin helps push baby out
    anti-diuretic H (ADH) > keep fluid in
    ^^opposite alcohol
    posterior pituitary gland
  40. basal metabolic rate
    controls body heat
    maintains blood pressure
    cannot go through/growth reproduction w/o it
    thyroid gland
  41. controls metabolism (hormone)
    thyroxine
  42. very important ion
    *will reduce blood Ca++ levels, goes to bones
    calcitonin hormone
  43. increases Ca++ levels/(antagonist) to calcitonin
    most important hormone
    parathyroid hormone
  44. helps thyroid gland
    in salt
    iodine
  45. secretes (24) hormones
    cortex
  46. supra renal glands
    two groups: 1) mineral corticoids > controls electrolytes (salts) in the extracellular fluid
    2) gluco corticoids > sugar metabolism, maintaing proper blood pressure
    adrenal glands
  47. sympathetic system is needed and epinephrine
    catecholamines
  48. long term ________ will:
    1. retain sodium > high BP
    2. muscle tissue will be converted to muscles
    3. diabetes, suppression to immune system
    stress
  49. -mainly exocrine
    -secretes enzymes in digestion
    -made of exocrine tissue
    -the islets secrete
    hormones: glucagon, raises blood sugar level
    insulin, lowers blood sugar level
    pancreas
  50. adipose tissue > leptin
    stomach > gastrin (response to food)
    duoderum > peptide (response to food)
    kidney > erythroprotein (produce RBCs)
    skin > cholocalciferol (vitamin D)
    tissues that secrete hormones
  51. vein is place to get blood, deoxyginated
    blood
  52. 1. transportation/distribution of blood
    2. regulation
    a) body temp
    b) pH level
    c) fluid volume (BP)
    3. protection
    a) blood clotting
    b) pathogens
    functions of blood
  53. vitamins A, D, E, K are all ________ ________
    fat soluble
  54. carry oxygen
    hemoglobin and spectrin
    erythrocytes (RBCs)
  55. protein that carries iron, lungs will carry oxygen all over body
    hemoglobin
  56. protein that is in RBCs to change shape to fit in capillaries
    spectrin
  57. bright red, oxygen present
    oxyhemoglobin
  58. no oxygen present
    deoxyhemoglobin
  59. hemoglobin and CO2
    carbaminoglobin
  60. to make new RBCs
    bone marrow
    erythropolesis
  61. stage of development right before RBC matures
    nucleus is protected leaving no nucleus
    reticulocyte
  62. includes all events associated with blood flow through the heart during one complete beat
    cardiac cycle
  63. pressure shoots up a little bit when aortic semi-lunar valve closes
    diocrotic notch
  64. volume of blood pumped out by one ventricle with each beat
    stroke volume
  65. how many times your heart beats per minute
    heart rate
  66. -stroke volume x heart rate
    -amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute
    cardiac output
  67. speeds heart up
    sympathetic
  68. slows heart down
    parasympathetic
  69. hormone (epinephrine) changes heart rate, adrenal glands
    -hypo > slower (thyroid)
    endocrine influence
  70. too much increases heart rate
    not enough decreases heart rate
    (ion)
    calcium ion
  71. resting pulse is greater than 100
    too fast
    tachycardia
  72. resting pulse is below 50-60
    too slow
    not enough oxygen
    bradycardia
  73. causes: valve problems, intrinsic conduction problems
    congestive heart failure
  74. space where blood goes through
    lumen
  75. takes blood away from heart
    small lumen
    big tunica media
    artery
  76. takes blood towards heart
    larger lumen
    smaller tunica media
    vein
  77. biggest arteries
    -aorta
    -expand during systole
    -contract during diastole
    -thick walls
    -pressure reservoirs, try to even out dramatic push
    elastic arteries
  78. can go through vasodilation and vasoconstriction
    muscular vessels
  79. smallest arteries
    aterioles
  80. exchanges take place
    very small vessels
    3 different types
    capillaries
  81. least permeable
    most common
    ex) skin, muscle
    (capillary)
    continuous
  82. large fenestrations (pores)
    increased permeability
    occurs in special places
    ex) kidney, small intestine
    (capillary)
    fenestrated
  83. most permeable
    ex: liver, bone marrow, spleen
    (capillary)
    sinusoidal
  84. body condition, if just sitting down don't need as much blood/O2 as if you were running around
    capillary beds
  85. capacitance
    blood reservoirs
    little veins = venules, smallest
    skeletal muscle pump & respiratory pump > help to return blood
    veins
  86. causes > pregnancy, genetics, lousy muscle tone
    once you have them, you cannot get rid of them
    varicose veins
  87. force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall
    blood pressure
  88. type of mechano receptor, measures pressure of blood, lets nervous system know what is going on (stand up too quick, feel light-headed > these tell the body that we need more blood flow to head)
    baroreceptors
  89. high to low
    the bigger the difference, the faster the blood flow
    pressure gradient

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